Biography of Goulart, João Belchior Marques - Archontology
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Goulart, João Belchior Marques

João Belchior Marques Goulart

b. 1 Mar 1919, São Borja, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil [1]
d. 6 Dec 1976, Mercedes, Corrientes, Argentina

Title: Presidente da República (President of the Republic)
Term: 25 Aug 1961 - 2 Apr 1964
Chronology: 3 Oct 1960, elected vice president by direct popular voting
  31 Jan 1961, took the oath of office at the session of the National Congress, Congressional Palace, meeting hall of the Chamber of Deputies, Brasília
  25 Aug 1961, following the resignation of President of the Republic, the office devolved on Vice President of the Republic (absent from Brazil) according to Article 79 of the Constitution of 1946
  7 Sep 1961, took the oath of office as President (the office of Vice-President having been abolished) at the session of the National Congress, Congressional Palace, meeting hall of the Chamber of Deputies, Brasília
  8 Sep 1961, took the oath of office as a member of the Council of Ministers at the session of the National Congress, Congressional Palace, meeting hall of the Chamber of Deputies, Brasília
  2 Apr 1964, office of President of the Republic declared vacant by a resolution of the National Congress
Names/titles: Also known from childhood as Jango Goulart

João Belchior Marques Goulart was the son of a rich farmer and landowner, who commanded the troops in Rio Grande do Sul during the revolution of 1930, which brought to power Getúlio Dorneles Vargas originating from the same state. Goulart studied law and social sciences at Pôrto Alegre graduating in 1939, but he gave up a career of lawyer and was occupied with family business. In 1945 he unexpectedly found himself involved in politics when he met with Vargas, who resided close to Goulart's estates after his deposition. Goulart joined the Brazilian Labor Party (Partido Trabalhista Brasileiro, PTB) and was elected to the state legislature of Rio Grande do Sul (1947). One of the Goulart's estates, São Vicente, became a headquarters for Vargas's political activities in 1947-1950. Elected to the federal Chamber of Deputies (1950), Goulart took a leave (1951) to assume the office of secretary for the interior and justice in the government of Rio Grande do Sul. He returned to his seat in the Chamber as deputy in 1952-1953, 1954 and then served as minister of labor, industry and commerce (18 Jun 1953 - 23 Feb 1954). Goulart ran for vice president in the elections of 3 Oct 1955. During governmental crisis of November 1955, the Congress recognized the existence of impediment to discharge of functions of the president by João Café Filho, who was thought to be plotting against the installation of Juscelino Kubitschek de Oliveira and Goulart. After the Superior Electoral Tribunal approved the official results of the election on 7 Jan 1956, both assumed their offices on 31 Jan 1956. Again elected vice president on the ticket with Jânio da Silva Quadros (3 Oct 1960), Goulart was the first in line of succession when Quadros abruptly resigned (25 Aug 1961), but he was unable to assume the office as he was on a state visit to China. The military, who accused Goulart of radicalism, tried to prevent his installation as president. As a result of compromise between the Congress and the anti-Goulart group in the military, Brazil was transformed into a parliamentary republic (2 Sep 1961) with most presidential powers transferred to the head of government. Goulart took the oath of office on 7 Sep 1961, but he reluctantly accepted the reduction of his authority and used all his influence to discredit the parliamentary system. Political instability followed the resignation of the first cabinet, presided by Tancredo de Almeida Neves, and three other cabinets were replaced in six months. Appealing directly to the people, Goulart won more than 80 percent of the votes cast at a plebiscite (6 Jan 1963) and the Congress duly repealed the parliamentary system (23 Jan 1963). The conflict of Goulart with Governor of Guanabara State, Carlos Lacerda, and the military exacerbated when Goulart signed decrees expropriating oil refineries and uncultivated land owned by foreign companies. The appeal of Goulart to the Congress for granting him extraordinary powers to accelerate reforms was seen as attempt to install a leftist dictatorship. The governors of Guanabara and Minas Gerais openly supported the military revolt against Goulart, who fled to Pôrto Alegre (1 Apr 1964) and then to Uruguay. The Congress declared the office of president vacant on 2 Apr 1964. [2]


Candidate (party) Popular vote (3 Oct 1960) [3]
João Belchior Marques Goulart (Labor) 4,547,010
Milton Soares Campos (National Democratic) 4,237,719
Fernando Ferrari (Renewal Labor Movement) 2,137,382
blank 1,305,865
void 358,378

[1] Many biographical sources for Brazilian history erroneously give the year of Goulart's birth as 1918. In fact, the year was intentionally changed to 1918 on his birth certificate through the efforts of Goulart's father, when Jango was found too young to enter a university [2, p. 1504].
[2] Dicionário Histórico-Biográfico Brasileiro (1984)
[3] Dicionário do voto (2000)
  Image: contemporary photograph.