Franco, Francisco

Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco Bahamonde

b. 4 Dec 1892, Ferrol, La Coruña
d. 20 Nov 1975, Madrid

Title: Jefe del Estado (Head of State)
Term: 1 Oct 1936 - 20 Nov 1975
Chronology: 29 Sep 1936, appointed, decree of the Council of National Defense (issued at Burgos) [1][2]
1 Oct 1936, installed as Head of State, public ceremony, Salón de Trono, Capitanía General, Burgos [3]
31 Jan 1938, assigned with presidency in the Government by Art. 16, Law of 30 Jan 1938 [4]
27 Jul 1947, confirmed in office in accordance with Art. 2, Ley de Sucesión en la Jefatura del Estado (Law on Succession in the Headship of State, 1947) [5]
18 Jul 1972, confirmed in office for life in accordance with Art. 1, Law No. 28/1972 [6]
9 Jun 1973, ceased to exercise the presidency in the Government in accordance with the Law No. 14/1973 [7]
20 Nov 1975, died
Names/titles: Originally: Baamonde (baptised 17 Dec 1892); personal official styles: Caudillo de España y de la Cruzada (Caudillo of Spain and of the Crusade), Caudillo de España por la gracia de Dios (Caudillo of Spain by the Grace of God)
Born in the family of a Navy paymaster; attended the Colegio del Sagrado Corazón and Colegio de la Marina (navy college) at Ferrol; enrolled in the Infantry Academy in Toledo (1907); commissioned as second lieutenant (1910); volunteered for service in North Africa, where he earned most important promotions and decorations (1912-1926); was severely wounded at El Biutz (1916); promoted to first lieutenant (1912), captain (1915), comandante (1917), lieutenant colonel (1923), colonel (1925), brigade general (1926), division general (1934); made deputy commander (1920-1923) and then commander (1923-1927) of the Legión Extranjera and gained national recognition for defense of the Spanish enclave of Melilla in Africa; served as director of the Joint Military Academy of Zaragoza (1928-1931); exposed hostile attitude towards the newly-established Spanish Republic after closing of the Academy; was appointed military comandante of the Balearic Islands (15 Feb 1933 - 14 Feb 1935); directed suppression of insurgency in Austrias (1934); was appointed superior chief of the military forces in Morocco (1935); chief of the General Staff of the Army (17 May 1935 - 21 Feb 1936); dismissed from his post after parliamentary victory of the left-wing Popular Front (Frente Popular) and sent as military comandante to the Canary Islands (21 Feb 1936 - 18 Jul 1936); called for uprising against the Republican government (18 Jul 1936); was made general chief of the army in Morocco and South of Spain (1936) to fight the Republican armies; appointed a member of the Junta de Defensa Nacional (Council of National Defense, 3 Aug 1936 - 1 Oct 1936) presided by Miguel Cabanellas y Ferrer; designated (29 Sep 1936) as Jefe del Gobierno del Estado Español (Head of the Government of the Spanish State) and Generalísimo de las fuerzas nacionales de tierra, mar y aire (Generalissimo of the National Forces of Land, See and Air); installed as Head of State and was entrusted with presidency of the Government (1 Oct 1936); personally guided military operations in the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939); named Jefe Nacional de Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional-Sindicalistas (National Head of the Spanish Traditionalist Phalanx and of the Assemblies of National-Syndicalist Offensive, 19 Apr 1937); consolidated power upon promulgation of the laws on state authority (30 Jan 1938 and 8 Aug 1939); promoted to captain general of the army and navy (18 Jul 1938); directed the creation of the corporate state in Spain based on the principles of national syndicalism; restored Roman Catholicism as state religion; maintained relationship with fascist and authoritarian regimes in Germany, Italy and Portugal, but preserved neutrality of Spain in World War II; approved the convocation of the Cortes (1942), functioning as advisory body; after the end of World War II, found it increasingly difficult to build international relationships, being ostracized by the United Nations; promulgated a law (published 27 Jul 1947) proclaiming Spain monarchy; with the beginning of the Cold War, was viewed as one of the world's leading anticommunist statesmen, which helped improve Spain's international relations with the United States and other western nations; pursued more liberal approach in domestic policies in the 1950s and 1960s; in attempt to provide for the continuity of his government, issued the Ley Orgánica del Estado (Organic Law of the State, effective 11 Jan 1967), establishing a sort of constitutional basis for Spain; appointed Príncipe Juan Carlos de Borbón y Borbón as official successor to the position of Head of State (22 Jul 1969); gave up his position as actual head of government with appointment of Luis Carrero Blanco (8 Jun 1973) as President of the Government; in the last years of his life, was twice [8] temporarily substituted as Head of State by Príncipe Juan Carlos, who eventually succeeded him upon his death 20 Nov 1975.
Biographical sources: "Francisco Franco: Biografía histórica", by Ricardo de la Cierva (Madrid: Planeta, 1982). 6 volumes.

[1] In the appointment decree and at inauguration: Jefe del Gobierno del Estado Español.
[2] Boletín Oficial de la Junta de Defensa Nacional de España. 30 Setiembre 1936. Núm. 32.
[3] Enciclopedia Universal Ilustrada Europeo-Americana. Suplemento Anual 1936-1939, pp. 1405-1406.
[4] Boletín Oficial del Estado. Lunes 31 de enero de 1938. Núm. 467. PP. 5514-5515.
[5] Boletín Oficial del Estado. Domingo 27 de julio de 1947. Núm. 208. PP. 4238-4239.
[6] Boletín Oficial del Estado. Gaceta de Madrid. Martes 18 de julio de 1972. Núm. 171. PP. 12906-12907.
[7] Boletín Oficial del Estado. Gaceta de Madrid. Sábado 9 de junio de 1973. Núm. 138. P. 11686.
[8] Jefe del Estado en funciones (acting for Franco during illness in accordance with Art. 11 of the Organic Law of the State (1967) and the Law No. 26/1971 (1971).
19 Jul 1974 - 2 Sep 1974 and 30 Oct 1975 - 20 Nov 1975 Juan Carlos de Borbón y Borbón, Príncipe de España
Last updated on: 26 Jun 2009 04:12:52