ROCHESTER, 1st Earl of - Archontology
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ROCHESTER, 1st Earl of

Laurence Hyde

baptized 15 Mar 1642 [1]
d. 2 May 1711, London

Title: Chairman
Term: 11 Dec 1688 - 11 Dec 1688
Chronology: 11 Dec 1688, elected Chairman at the meeting of Peers of the Realm
  12 Dec 1688, Marquess of Halifax elected Chairman
Names/titles: Name also spelled: Lawrence Hyde; Viscount Hyde of Kenilworth [from 23 Apr 1681]; 1st Earl of Rochester [from 29 Nov 1682]

Lawrence Hyde was the second son of the Earl of Clarendon, author of the "History of the Rebellion and Civil Wars in England" and a prominent statesman in the time of Charles II. Hyde was elected to the Convention Parliament in 1660 and was created master of the robes (1662-1675). Charles II appointed him First Lord of the Treasury (19 Nov 1679 - 25 Aug 1684) and a privy councilor. Hyde entered the House of Lords in 1681, when he was created viscount. Elevated to the earldom in 1682, he was made Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. Rochester supported the Duke of York (later King James II), who married his sister, Anne Hyde (Sep 1660), in his claim to the throne and became Lord High Treasurer (16 Feb 1685 - 10 Dec 1686) after James's accession. However, he lost his office when James II attempted to implement his pro-Catholic policies.

Rochester was among the twenty-nine peers, who established a provisional executive (see Peers of the Realm) in the absence of James II (11 Dec 1688). Voted into the chair on proposal of William Sancroft, Archbishop of Canterbury, at the opening of the first meeting, Rochester was replaced with the Marquess of Halifax the next day (12 Dec 1688). As a member of the Convention Parliament (1689), Rochester led the party favoring the establishment of regency. As a consequence, after the accession of William III and Mary II, Rochester did not hold any important posts. He was made again Lord Lieutenant of Ireland (18 Sep 1701 - 4 Jun 1703) and upon the accession of Queen Anne, he became a leader of the Tory High Church Anglican party. In 17101711 he was Lord President of the Council. Biography source: [2; 3]

[1] Date according to [2]. The date "March 1641" in "Dictionary of National Biography" may be due to the arrangement making the official year-date change near the end of March.
[2] "History of the Parliament: The House of Commons 1660-1690", ed. by Basil Duke Henning (Secker & Warburg, London 1983).
[3] "A kingdom without a king. The journal of the provisional government in the revolution of 1688", ed. by Robert Beddard (Oxford, 1988).
  Image: portrait of Laurence Hyde, 1st Earl of Rochester after William Wissing, c. 1685-1687.