Biography of NAPOLÉON II - Archontology

Napoléon II

b. 20 Mar 1811, Paris, France
d. 22 Jul 1832, Schloß Schönbrunn, near Vienna, Austrian Empire

Title: Par la grâce de Dieu et les constitutions de l'Empire, empereur des français (By the Grace of God and Constitutions of the Empire, Emperor of the French)
Term: 22 Jun 1815 - 7 Jul 1815
Chronology: 22 Jun 1815, succeeded his father, Napoléon Ier, in virtue of the latter's abdication [1]
23 Jun 1815, recognized emperor in absentia and proclaimed, resolution of the Chambre des représentants (Chamber of Representatives); concurred in by the Chambre des pairs (Chamber of Peers) 23 Jun 1815 [2]
7 Jul 1815, legislative and executive bodies of the Empire ceased to exist de facto upon the entrance of the Allied Powers into Paris [2, vol. 40, p. 371-376]
Names/titles: Private name: Napoléon-François-Charles-Joseph (baptized 9 Jun 1811); styled Roi de Rome (King of Rome) [from birth]; Herzog von Reichstadt (Duke of Reichstadt) [from 22 Jul 1818]

The only son of Napoléon I and Marie-Louise, a member of the House of Habsburg; was taken to Austria by his mother on the eve of the first abdication of Napoléon I (11 Apr 1814); never returned to France; succeeded to the throne of France in accordance with the Déclaration au peuple français (Declaration to the French People) signed by his father (22 Jun 1815); was recognized empereur des français by resolutions of the legislative bodies (23 Jun 1815) and by proclamation of the Commission de gouvernement [Commission of Government] (24 Jun 1815), created for exercising provisionally the functions of government; excluded from succession to his mother's Italian dominions by the Treaty of Paris (1817); received the title of Herzog von Reichstadt (1818); died in the age of 21 of tuberculosis. Biography source: [3, vol. 7, pp. 249-250]

[1] Moniteur universel, No. 174, 23 Jun 1815, p. 611.
[2] Archives parlementaires - Série 2, 14:521, 14:527.
[3] La grande encyclopédie: inventaire raisonné des sciences, des lettres et des arts, ed. by Berthelot, Hartwig Derenbourg, F.-Camille Dreyfus... [et al.] (Paris: H. Lamirault, 1885-1902).
Image: portrait by François Gérard.