Qing: Emperors: 1636-1912 - Archontology.org

Qing: Emperors: 1636-1912

Each ruler is recorded under the following protocol: temple name (miàohào | 廟號) in Chinese || personal name (míng | ), considered tabooed (huì | ) upon accession, in Chinese | Manchu; posthumous name (shì | ) in Chinese. The years of bestowal or change are given in brackets (subsequent extensions of posthumous names are indicated).
Ruling House: Àixīn Juéluó | Aisin Gioro (愛新覺羅 | ᠠᡳᠰᡳᠨ ᡤᡳᠣᡵᠣ)
Huángdì | Hūwangdi (皇帝 | ᡥᡡᠸᠠᠩᡩᡳ)
15 May 1636 - 21 Sep 1643 Tàizōng (太宗) [1643] || Huáng Tàijí | Hong Taiji (皇太極 | ᡥᠣᠩ ᡨᠠᡳᠵᡳ) [1]
posthumous names: Yīng tiān xīngguó hóng dé zhāngwǔ kuān wēn rén shèng ruì xiào jìng mǐn zhāo dìng lóng dào xiǎn gōng wén huángdì (應天興國弘德彰武寬溫仁聖睿孝敬敏昭定隆道顯功文皇帝) [1643] (lóng dào xiǎn gōng | 隆道顯功 added in 1662; jìng mǐn | 敬敏 added in 1723; zhāo dìng | 昭定 added in 1736)
common reference (era name): Chóngdé (崇德)
   
8 Oct 1643 - 5 Feb 1661 Shìzǔ (世祖) [1661] || Fúlín | Fulin (福臨 | ᡶᡠᠯᡳᠨ)
  posthumous names: Tǐ tiān lóng yùn dìng tǒng jiàn jí yīng ruì qīn wén xiǎn wǔ dà dé hóng gōng zhìrén chún xiào zhāng huángdì (體天隆運定統建極英睿欽文顯武大德弘功至仁純孝章皇帝) [1661] (dìng tǒng jiàn jí | 定統建極 added in 1723; xiǎn wǔ | 顯武 added in 1736)
  common reference (era name): Shùnzhì (順治)
   
7 Feb 1661 - 20 Dec 1722 Shèngzǔ (聖祖) [1722] || Xuányè | Hiowan Yei (玄燁 | ᡥᡳᠣᠸᠠᠨ ᠶᡝᡳ)
  posthumous names: Hé tiān hóng yùn wénwǔ ruì zhé gōng jiǎn kuānyù xiàojìng chéngxìn zhōng hé gōngdé dà chéngrén huángdì (合天弘運文武睿哲恭儉寬裕孝敬誠信中和功德大成仁皇帝) [1722] (zhōng hé | 中和 added in 1736)
  common reference (era name): Kāngxī (康熙)
   
27 Dec 1722 - 8 Oct 1735 Shìzōng (世宗) [1735] || Yìnzhēn | In Jen (胤禛 | ᡳᠨ ᠵᡝᠨ)
  posthumous names: Jìngtiān chāng yùn jiàn zhōngbiǎo zhèngwén wǔ yīngmíng kuān rénxìn yì ruì shèng dà xiào zhìchéng xiàn huángdì (敬天昌運建中表正文武英明寬仁信毅睿聖大孝至誠憲皇帝) [1735] (ruì shèng | 睿聖 added in 1799)
  common reference (era name): Yōngzhèng (雍正)
   
18 Oct 1735 - 9 Feb 1796 Gāozōng (高宗) [1799] || Hónglì | Hung Li (弘曆 | ᡥᡠᠩ ᠯᡳ)
  posthumous names: Fǎ tiān lóng yùn zhìchéng xiānjué tǐ yuán lì jí fū wén fèn wǔ qīn míng xiàocí shénshèng chún huángdì (法天隆運至誠先覺體元立極敷文奮武欽明孝慈神聖純皇帝) [1799] (qīn míng | 欽明 added in 1820)
  common reference (era name): Qiánlóng (乾隆)
   
9 Feb 1796 - 2 Sep 1820 Rénzōng (仁宗) [1820] || Yǒngyǎn | Yong Yan (永琰 | ᠶᠣᠩ ᠶᠠᠨ); Yóngyǎn | Yong Yan (顒琰 | ᠶᠣᠩ ᠶᠠᠨ) [1794]
  posthumous names: Shòu tiān xīng yùn fū huà suí yóu chóngwén jīng wǔ guāng yù xiàogōng qínjiǎn duānmǐn yīngzhé ruì huángdì (受天興運敷化綏猷崇文經武光裕孝恭勤儉端敏英哲睿皇帝) [1820] (guāng yù | 光裕 added in 1850)
  common reference (era name): Jiāqìng (嘉慶)
   
3 Oct 1820 - 25 Feb 1850 Xuānzōng (宣宗) [1850] || Miánníng | Min Ning (綿寧 | ᠮᡳᠨ ᠨᡳᠩ); Mínníng | Min Ning (旻寧 | ᠮᡳᠨ ᠨᡳᠩ) [1820]
  posthumous names: Xiào tiān fú yùn lì zhōng tǐ zhèng zhìwén shèng wǔ zhìyǒng réncí jiǎn qín xiào mǐn kuān dìng chéng huángdì (效天符運立中體正至文聖武智勇仁慈儉勤孝敏寬定成皇帝) [1850] (kuān dìng | 寬定 added in 1861)
  common reference (era name): Dàoguāng (道光)
   
9 Mar 1850 - 22 Aug 1861 Wénzōng (文宗) [1861] || Yìzhǔ | I Ju (奕詝 | ᡳ ᠵᡠ)
  posthumous names: Xié tiān yì yùn zhí zhōng chuí mó màodé zhènwǔ shèng xiào yuān gōng duān rén kuān mǐn zhuāng jiǎn xiǎn huángdì (協天翊運執中垂謨懋德振武聖孝淵恭端仁寬敏莊儉顯皇帝) [1862] (zhuāng jiǎn | 莊儉 added in 1875)
  common reference (era name): Xiánfēng (咸豐)
   
11 Nov 1861 - 12 Jan 1875 Mùzōng (穆宗) [1875] || Zǎichún | Dzai Šun (載淳 | ᡯᠠᡳ ᡧᡠᠨ)
  posthumous names: Jì tiān kāi yùn shòu zhōngjū zhèng bǎo dàdìng gōng shèng zhì chéng xiào xìn mǐn gōng kuān míng sù yì huángdì (繼天開運受中居正保大定功聖智誠孝信敏恭寬明肅毅皇帝) [1875] (míng sù | 明肅 added in 1908)
  common reference (era name): Tóngzhì (同治)
   
25 Feb 1875 - 12 Nov 1908 Dézōng (德宗) [1909] || Zǎitián | Dzai Tiyan (載湉 | ᡯᠠᡳ ᡨᡳᠶᠠᠨ) [2]
  posthumous names: Tóng tiān chóng yùn dàzhōng zhìzhèng jīngwén wěi wǔ rénxiào ruìzhì duān jiǎn kuān qín jǐng huángdì (同天崇運大中至正經文緯武仁孝睿智端儉寬勤景皇帝) [1909]
  common reference (era name): Guāngxù (光緒)
   
2 Dec 1908 - 12 Feb 1912 no temple name bestowed || Pǔyí | Pu I (溥儀 | ᡦᡠ ᡳ) [3]
  common reference (era name): Xuāntǒng (宣統)

[1] The personal name was most probably different from the one (Huáng Tàijí | Hong Taiji) appearing in official chronicles.
[2] The death of Dézōng was apparently concealed for some time. The official record of the reign (Dézōng Jǐng huángdì shí lù | 德宗景皇帝实录) and an edict of his successor report that the emperor died between 17:00 and 19:00 14 Nov 1908. However, a private diary of the court historiographer, Yùn Yùdǐng (恽毓鼎), puts the date on 12 Nov 1908.
[3] Shèzhèng wáng (攝政王) | Prince Regent
  14 Nov 1908 - 6 Dec 1911 Chún qīnwáng Zàifēng | Hošoi gulu cin wang Dzai Feng (醇親王載灃 | ᡥᠣᡧᠣᡳ ᡤᡠᠯᡠ
ᠴᡳᠨ ᠸᠠᠩ
ᡯᠠᡳ ᡶᡝᠩ
)
    appointed by an imperial edict of 13 Nov 1908; assumed government in accordance with an imperial edict of 14 Nov 1908
Last updated on: 16 Jun 2021 06:34:17