Biography of Dufferin, earl of - Archontology
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Dufferin, earl of

Frederick Temple Hamilton-Temple-Blackwood

b. 21 Jun 1826, Florence, Tuscany
d. 12 Feb 1902, Clandeboye, Co. Down, Ireland

Title: Governor General in and over the Dominion of Canada = Gouverneur Général dans et sur la Puissance du Canada
Term: 25 Jun 1872 - 25 Nov 1878
Chronology: 22 May 1872, appointed by Letters Patent constituting the office, naming the office holder and giving formal instructions, under the Royal Sign Manual and Signet [1]
  25 Jun 1872, oath of allegiance, oath of office and oath of Keeper of the Great Seal of Canada taken, Legislative Council Chamber, Parliament Buildings (Hôtel du Parlement), Québec [1]
  25 Nov 1878, termination of appointment with the installation of a successor [2][3]
Names/titles: Original name: Frederick Temple Blackwood; added to name by Royal Licence: Hamilton [9 Sep 1862], Temple [13 Nov 1872]; 6th Baronet (Ireland); 5th Baron Dufferin and Clandeboye, of Ballyleidy and Killyleagh, Co. Down (Ireland) [from 21 Jul 1841]; 1st Baron Clandeboye, of Clandeboye, Co. Down (UK) [from 22 Jan 1850]; 1st Earl of Dufferin, Co. Down (UK), and 1st Viscount Clandeboye, of Clandeboye, Co. Down (UK) [from 13 Nov 1871]; 1st Marquess of Dufferin and Ava, of Co. Down and of Burma, and 1st Earl of Ava, in Burma (UK) [from 17 Nov 1888]
  Viceroy and Governor-General of India [13 Dec 1884 - 10 Dec 1888]

The son of the 4th Baron Dufferin, Frederick Temple Blackwood was educated at Eton and Christ Church College, Oxford, but did not graduate. He succeeded his father in 1841 as 5th Baron Dufferin in the peerage of Ireland. Dufferin served as Lord-in-Waiting to Queen Victoria (1849-1852, 1854-1858). His experience in overseas administration was enhanced in 1860 with his appointment as Commissioner to Syria, followed in 1864 by his appointment as Under-Secretary for India and then as Undersecretary of War within the British Government in 1866. Dufferin sat in the Lords as a Liberal and was appointed Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster (1868-1872) under William Gladstone. Appointed Governor General of Canada in 1872, Earl of Dufferin displayed great tact and judgment during the Pacific Scandal that forced the Prime Minister John A. Macdonald to resign. However, Dufferin's attempts to reconcile British Columbia to Confederation annoyed the government of Alexander Mackenzie. During his term as governor general, Prince Edward Island was admitted to Confederation (1873), and several well-known Canadian institutions, such as the Supreme Court of Canada, the Royal Military College of Canada, and the Intercolonial Railway, were established. He was the first governor general to make La Citadelle in Québec City as a second vice-regal residence. After leaving Canada Dufferin served as ambassador to Russia (1879-1881) and to Turkey (1881-1884), Viceroy and Governor-General of India (13 Dec 1884 - 10 Dec 1888), and then as ambassador to Italy (1888-1891) and to France (1891-1896).

[1] The Canada Gazette. No. 53. Ottawa, Saturday, June 29, 1872. PP. 1261-1262.
[2] The Canada Gazette. No. 22. Ottawa, Saturday, November 30, 1878. PP. 621-622.
[3] After Earl of Dufferin permanently left Canada, his functions were taken over by Sir Patrick Leonard MacDougall as Administrator of the Government of the Dominion of Canada = Administrateur du Gouvernement de la Puissance du Canada (19 Oct 1878 - 25 Nov 1878), who continued in office until the installation of Marquess of Lorne (The Canada Gazette. No. 17. Ottawa, Saturday, October 26, 1878. P. 489).
  Image: photograph by Notman & Fraser/Library and Archives Canada/PA-028628 (c. 1873)