Vietnam: Notes

Names of the Ruler

The record shows the following data:

(a) Personal name. Every emperor (hoàng đế) has personal names: a name before accession (family name Nguyễn Phước + personal name; beginning, after the second emperor, with a "generation name"); and, as taboo name (tên húy) the family name + new personal name adopted upon accession.

The second emperor of the Nguyễn Phước family prescribed, for all his descendants, a "generation name" to form the first part of the personal name of each. These "generation names" are, in succession, the words of a poem composed by the ruler; the initial ones are: Miên Hồng Ứng Bửu Vĩnh.

(b) Posthumous name. Following the Chinese practice, a ruler regarded as meritorious received after his death a temple name (miêu hiệu) and a posthumous name (thụy hiệu), a string of commendatory adjectives ending with hoàng đế.

(c) Era name. Following the model of the Ming and Qing polities, there is a succession of era names (niện hiệu), usually (but not always) roughly coterminous with each specific reign.

Usual Designations

Following the usual, questionable, practice for the Ming and Qing polities of identifying, for general use, each ruler by the era name prevalent in his reign, the same practice obtains for Vietnam. The respective designation is given here for every reign, in the form of the era name instituted by that ruler; exceptions are marked with an asterisk.

31 May 1802 - 14 Feb 1820 Gia Long
14 Feb 1820 - 20 Jan 1841 Minh Mạng
11 Feb 1841 - 4 Nov 1847 Thiệu Trị
10 Nov 1847 - 19 Jul 1883 Tự Ðức
20 Jul 1883 - 23 Jul 1883 Dục Ðức *
30 Jul 1883 - 29 Nov 1883 Hiệp Hoà *
2 Dec 1883 - 31 Jul 1884 Kiến Phước
2 Aug 1884 - 5 Jul 1885 Hàm Nghi
19 Jul 1885 - 28 Jan 1889 Ðồng Khành
1 Feb 1889 - 3 Sep 1907 Thành Thái
5 Sep 1907 - 3 May 1916 Duy Tân
18 May 1916 - 6 Nov 1925 Khải Ðịnh
8 Jan 1926 - 30 Aug 1945 Bảo Ðại

Southern and Northern Dynasties

The period 1533-1592 of the co-existence of the and Mạc polities is referred to by historians as "Nam-Bắc Triều" ("Southern and Northern Dynasties").

Last updated on: 17 Jun 2012 09:49:49