Roosevelt, Franklin

Franklin Delano Roosevelt

b. 30 Jan 1882, Hyde Park, New York
d. 12 Apr 1945, Warm Springs, Georgia

Title: President of the United States
Term: 4 Mar 1933 - 20 Jan 1937
Chronology: 8 Feb 1933, election to the office of President of the United States is declared upon counting electoral votes (cast 9 Jan 1933), joint session of the Senate and House of Representatives, House Chamber, U.S. Capitol, Washington, D.C. [1]
4 Mar 1933, commencement of term
4 Mar 1933, took an oath of office as President of the United States, inaugural ceremony as part of the special session of the Senate, East Portico, U.S. Capitol, Washington, D.C. [2]
15 Oct 1933, term of office is fixed to end on 20 Jan 1937 upon the taking effect of Section 1, Twentieth Amendment to the United States Constitution (passed as joint resolution of the Senate and House of Representatives 2 Mar 1932, ratified by three-quarters of the states 23 Jan 1933, first two sections effective 15 Oct 1933) [3]
20 Jan 1937, expiration of term
Term: 20 Jan 1937 - 20 Jan 1941
Chronology: 6 Jan 1937, election to the office of President of the United States is declared upon counting electoral votes (cast 14 Dec 1936), joint session of the Senate and House of Representatives, House Chamber, U.S. Capitol, Washington, D.C. [4]
20 Jan 1937, commencement of term
20 Jan 1937, took an oath of office as President of the United States, inaugural ceremony, East Portico, U.S. Capitol, Washington, D.C. [5]
20 Jan 1941, expiration of term
Term: 20 Jan 1941 - 20 Jan 1945
Chronology: 6 Jan 1941, election to the office of President of the United States is declared upon counting electoral votes (cast 16 Dec 1940), joint session of the Senate and House of Representatives, House Chamber, U.S. Capitol, Washington, D.C. [6]
20 Jan 1941, commencement of term
20 Jan 1941, took an oath of office as President of the United States, inaugural ceremony, East Portico, U.S. Capitol, Washington, D.C. [7]
20 Jan 1945, expiration of term
Term: 20 Jan 1945 - 12 Apr 1945
Chronology: 6 Jan 1945, election to the office of President of the United States is declared upon counting electoral votes (cast 18 Dec 1944), joint session of the Senate and House of Representatives, House Chamber, U.S. Capitol, Washington, D.C. [8]
20 Jan 1945, commencement of term
20 Jan 1945, took an oath of office as President of the United States, inaugural ceremony, South Portico, White House, Washington, D.C. [9]
12 Apr 1945, died [10]
Biography:
Attended Groton school (1896-1900) in Massachusetts; received a baccalaureate degree in history from Harvard University (1903); was influenced by the ideas of his fifth cousin, President Theodore Roosevelt; studied law at New York's Columbia University; admitted to the bar in 1907; practiced law as a clerck with Carter, Ledyard, and Milburn (1907-1910); elected to the New York State Senate as a Democrat (1911-1913); supported Woodrow Wilson's candidacy at the Democratic National Convention (1912); was appointed Assistant Secretary of the Navy (1913-1920); unsuccessful candidate at Democratic senatorial primaries (1914); unsuccessful candidate for Vice President on the Democratic ticket (1920); partner, Emmet, Marvin & Roosevelt, attorneys (1920); contracted poliomyelitis (1921), never regained the use of his legs; partner and vice president, Fidelity and Deposit Company of Maryland (1920-1928); partner, Roosevelt & O'Connor, attorneys (1924-1933); elected Governor of the State of New York (served 1 Jan 1929 - 1 Jan 1933); elected president of the United States (1932); faced the Great Depression, greatest crisis in American history since the Civil War; initiated the New Deal to combat the crisis; worked with a special session of Congress during the first "100 days" to pass recovery legislation; succeeded in overcoming the depression by establishing government agencies and introducing social aid programs; reelected president in 1936; reelected president in 1940; maintained neutrality in the Second World War through 1941; enacted a "lend-lease" bill (March 1941) to furnish aid to nations at war with Germany and Italy; led the nation into the world war after the Japanese surprise attack on Pearl Harbor (7 Dec 1941), followed by Germany's and Italy's declarations of war against the United States; actively carried out the role of Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces; moved to create a "grand alliance" against the Axis powers through "The Declaration of the United Nations," (1 Jan 1942); the United States and its allies invaded North Africa in November 1942 and Sicily and Italy in 1943; the D-Day landings on the Normandy beaches in France, 6 Jun 1944, were followed by the allied invasion of Germany six months later; met with his political allies, Winston Churchill and Iosif Stalin at Tehran, Iran (November 1943) and again at the Yalta Conference in the Crimea, USSR (February 1945); despite suffering from advanced arteriosclerosis, reelected president in 1944; suffered a massive massive cerebral hemorrhage during a vacation at Warm Springs, Georgia, and died there on 12 Apr 1945.
Biographical sources: The New York Times, New York, Friday, April 13, 1945, vol. XCIV, No. 31,856, p. 1 (obituary)
Elections:

Candidate (party) Electoral vote (9 Jan 1933)
Franklin Delano Roosevelt (Democratic) 472
Herbert Clark Hoover (Republican) 59
total number of electors appointed 531
number of votes for a majority 266

Candidate (party) Electoral vote (14 Dec 1936)
Franklin Delano Roosevelt (Democratic) 523
Alfred Mossman Landon (Republican) 8
total number of electors appointed 531
number of votes for a majority 266

Candidate (party) Electoral vote (16 Dec 1940)
Franklin Delano Roosevelt (Democratic) 449
Wendell Lewis Willkie (Republican) 82
total number of electors appointed 531
number of votes for a majority 266

Candidate (party) Electoral vote (18 Dec 1944)
Franklin Delano Roosevelt (Democratic) 432
Thomas Edmund Dewey (Republican) 99
total number of electors appointed 531
number of votes for a majority 266
Source of electoral results: Congressional Record, 72nd Congress, 2nd Session, 3639; Congressional Record, 75th Congress, 1st Session, 83; Congressional Record, 77th Congress, 1st Session, 44; Congressional Record, 79th Congress, 1st Session, 91.

[1] Congressional Record, 72nd Congress, 2nd Session, 3639.
[2] Congressional Record, 73rd Congress, Special Session of the Senate, 3-6.
[3] Statutes at Large, 47:2569-2570; Congressional Record, 72nd Congress, 1st Session, 5027, 5086, 5143.
[4] Congressional Record, 75th Congress, 1st Session, 83.
[5] Congressional Record, 75th Congress, 1st Session, 315-318.
[6] Congressional Record, 77th Congress, 1st Session, 43-44.
[7] Congressional Record, 77th Congress, 1st Session, 188-190.
[8] Congressional Record, 79th Congress, 1st Session, 90-91.
[9] Congressional Record, 79th Congress, 1st Session, 364-365.
[10] The New York Times, New York, Friday, April 13, 1945, vol. XCIV, No. 31,856, p. 1.
Image: photograph (1933).
Last updated on: 24 Dec 2011 13:55:06