Lincoln, Abraham

Abraham Lincoln

b. 12 Feb 1809, near Hodgenville, Hardin County, Kentucky
d. 15 Apr 1865, Washington, D.C.

Title: President of the United States
Term: 4 Mar 1861 - 4 Mar 1865
Chronology: 13 Feb 1861, election to the office of President of the United States is declared upon counting electoral votes (cast 5 Dec 1860), joint session of the Senate and House of Representatives, House Chamber, U.S. Capitol, Washington, D.C. [1]
4 Mar 1861, commencement of term
4 Mar 1861, took an oath of office as President of the United States, inaugural ceremony as part of the special session of the Senate, East Portico, U.S. Capitol, Washington, D.C. [2]
4 Mar 1865, expiration of term
Term: 4 Mar 1865 - 15 Apr 1865
Chronology: 8 Feb 1865, election to the office of President of the United States is declared upon counting electoral votes (cast 7 Dec 1864), joint session of the Senate and House of Representatives, House Chamber, U.S. Capitol, Washington, D.C. [3]
4 Mar 1865, commencement of term
4 Mar 1865, took an oath of office as President of the United States, inaugural ceremony as part of the special session of the Senate, East Portico, U.S. Capitol, Washington, D.C. [4]
15 Apr 1865, died (assassination) [5]
Biography:
Born in the family of a Kentucky farmer; moved with his parents to a tract on Little Pigeon Creek, Indiana, in 1816; attended a log-cabin school at short intervals and was self-instructed in elementary branches; moved with his father to Macon County, Illinois, in 1830 and later to Coles County, Illinois; read the principles of law and works on surveying; during the Black Hawk War volunteered in a company of Sangamon County Rifles in 1832; was elected its captain and served until the company was mustered out of service; reenlisted as a private and served until mustered out 16 Jun 1832; returned to New Salem, Illinois, and was unsuccessful as a candidate for the State House of Representatives; entered business as a general merchant in New Salem; postmaster of New Salem (1833-1836); deputy county surveyor (1834-1836); elected a member of the State House of Representatives in 1834, 1836, 1838, and 1840; declined to be a candidate for renomination; admitted to the bar in 1836; moved to Springfield, Illinois, in 1837 and engaged in the practice of law; elected as a Whig to the 30th Congress (4 Mar 1847 - 4 Mar 1849); did not seek a renomination in 1848; an unsuccessful applicant for Commissioner of the General Land Office under President Zachary Taylor; tendered the Governorship of Oregon Territory, but declined; unsuccessful Whig candidate for election to the US Senate before the legislature of 1855; unsuccessful Republican candidate for the US Senate in 1858; elected as a Republican President of the United States in 1860; principal war leader during the Civil War between the federal government of the United States and 11 Southern states (1861-1865); issued Emancipation Proclamations (22 Sep 1862 and 1 Jan 1863), bringing freedom to a large part of the Negro slaves; reelected President in 1864; shot by an assassin (14 Apr 1865), and died the following day.
Biographical sources: Biographical Directory of the United States Congress (2005).
Elections:

Candidate Electoral vote (5 Dec 1860)
Abraham Lincoln 180
John Cabell Breckinridge 72
John Bell 39
Stephen Arnold Douglas 12
total number of electors appointed 303
number of votes for a majority 152

Candidate Electoral vote (7 Dec 1864)
Abraham Lincoln 212
George Brinton McClellan 21
total number of electors appointed 234
number of votes for a majority * 118
* One elector did not vote (requirements for attaining a majority for election)
Source of electoral results: Senate Journal, 36th Congress, 2nd Session, 222-223; Congressional Globe, 36th Congress, 2nd Session, 894; Senate Journal, 38th Congress, 2nd Session, 149-150; Congressional Globe, 38th Congress, 2nd Session, 669.

[1] Senate Journal, 36th Congress, 2nd Session, 221-223; Congressional Globe, 36th Congress, 2nd Session, 893-895.
[2] Senate Journal, 36th Congress, 2nd Session, 399-409; Congressional Globe, 36th Congress, 2nd Session, Senate - Special Session, 1433-1435.
[3] Senate Journal, 38th Congress, 2nd Session, 148-150; Congressional Globe, 38th Congress, 2nd Session, 668-669.
[4] Senate Journal, 38th Congress, 2nd Session, 343-347; Congressional Globe, 38th Congress, 2nd Session, Senate - Special Session, 1424-1425.
[5] Sunday Morning Chronicle, Washington, April 16, 1865; "The Life and Public Services of Abraham Lincoln," ed. by Henry J. Raymond (New York: Derby and Miller, 1865), 785-786.
Image: photograph by Alexander Gardner (taken 8 Nov 1863).
Last updated on: 10 Apr 2016 00:40:34