Lincoln, Abraham

Abraham Lincoln

b. 12 Feb 1809, near Hodgenville, Hardin County, Kentucky
d. 15 Apr 1865, Washington, D.C.

Title: President of the United States
Term: 4 Mar 1861 - 4 Mar 1865
Chronology: 13 Feb 1861, election to the office of President of the United States is declared upon counting electoral votes (cast 5 Dec 1860), joint session of the Senate and House of Representatives, House Chamber, U.S. Capitol, Washington, D.C. [1]
4 Mar 1861, commencement of term
4 Mar 1861, took an oath of office as President of the United States, inaugural ceremony as part of the special session of the Senate, East Portico, U.S. Capitol, Washington, D.C. [2]
4 Mar 1865, expiration of term
Term: 4 Mar 1865 - 15 Apr 1865
Chronology: 8 Feb 1865, election to the office of President of the United States is declared upon counting electoral votes (cast 7 Dec 1864), joint session of the Senate and House of Representatives, House Chamber, U.S. Capitol, Washington, D.C. [3]
4 Mar 1865, commencement of term
4 Mar 1865, took an oath of office as President of the United States, inaugural ceremony as part of the special session of the Senate, East Portico, U.S. Capitol, Washington, D.C. [4]
15 Apr 1865, died (assassination) [5]
Biography:
Born in the family of a Kentucky farmer; moved with his parents to a tract on Little Pigeon Creek, Indiana, in 1816; attended a log-cabin school at short intervals and was self-instructed in elementary branches; moved with his father to Macon County, Illinois, in 1830 and later to Coles County, Illinois; read the principles of law and works on surveying; during the Black Hawk War volunteered in a company of Sangamon County Rifles in 1832; was elected its captain and served until the company was mustered out of service; reenlisted as a private and served until mustered out 16 Jun 1832; returned to New Salem, Illinois, and was unsuccessful as a candidate for the State House of Representatives; entered business as a general merchant in New Salem; postmaster of New Salem (1833-1836); deputy county surveyor (1834-1836); elected a member of the State House of Representatives in 1834, 1836, 1838, and 1840; declined to be a candidate for renomination; admitted to the bar in 1836; moved to Springfield, Illinois, in 1837 and engaged in the practice of law; elected as a Whig to the 30th Congress (4 Mar 1847 - 4 Mar 1849); did not seek a renomination in 1848; an unsuccessful applicant for Commissioner of the General Land Office under President Zachary Taylor; tendered the Governorship of Oregon Territory, but declined; unsuccessful Whig candidate for election to the US Senate before the legislature of 1855; unsuccessful Republican candidate for the US Senate in 1858; elected as a Republican President of the United States in 1860; principal war leader during the Civil War between the federal government of the United States and 11 Southern states (1861-1865); issued Emancipation Proclamations (22 Sep 1862 and 1 Jan 1863), bringing freedom to a large part of the Negro slaves; reelected President in 1864; shot by an assassin (14 Apr 1865), and died the following day.
Biographical sources: Biographical Directory of the United States Congress (2005).
Elections:

Candidate (party) Electoral vote (5 Dec 1860)
Abraham Lincoln (Republican) 180
John Cabell Breckinridge (Democratic) 72
John Bell (Constitutional Union) 39
Stephen Arnold Douglas (Democratic) 12
total number of electors appointed 303
number of votes for a majority 152

Candidate (party) Electoral vote (7 Dec 1864)
Abraham Lincoln (National Union) 212
George Brinton McClellan (Democratic) 21
total number of electors appointed 234
number of votes for a majority * 118
* One elector did not vote (requirements for attaining a majority for election)
Source of electoral results: Senate Journal, 36th Congress, 2nd Session, 222-223; Congressional Globe, 36th Congress, 2nd Session, 894; Senate Journal, 38th Congress, 2nd Session, 149-150; Congressional Globe, 38th Congress, 2nd Session, 669.

[1] Senate Journal, 36th Congress, 2nd Session, 221-223; Congressional Globe, 36th Congress, 2nd Session, 893-895.
[2] Senate Journal, 36th Congress, 2nd Session, 399-409; Congressional Globe, 36th Congress, 2nd Session, Senate - Special Session, 1433-1435.
[3] Senate Journal, 38th Congress, 2nd Session, 148-150; Congressional Globe, 38th Congress, 2nd Session, 668-669.
[4] Senate Journal, 38th Congress, 2nd Session, 343-347; Congressional Globe, 38th Congress, 2nd Session, Senate - Special Session, 1424-1425.
[5] Sunday Morning Chronicle, Washington, April 16, 1865; "The Life and Public Services of Abraham Lincoln," ed. by Henry J. Raymond (New York: Derby and Miller, 1865), 785-786.
Image: photograph by Alexander Gardner (taken 8 Nov 1863).
Last updated on: 10 Apr 2016 00:40:34