George was the eldest son of King George III and Sophia Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. As Prince of Wales, he became notorious for his profligacy and extravagance. He secretly married a Roman Catholic (15 Sep 1785), but less than two years later he allowed Parliament to declare the marriage illegal to obtain money for his debts. In 1795, he married his cousin, Caroline of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel, but they became estranged after the birth of their daughter, Princess Charlotte, in 1796. When his father, who suffered dementia for years, became permanently insane, George became the prince regent under the terms of the Regency Act and was sworn in on 6 Feb 1811. The victories of the British army in the Peninsular War and the failure of the French invasion of Russia completed the defeat of Napoléon Ier. A friend of many prominent Whigs, the Prince did not use an opportunity to appoint the Whig cabinet and retained the Tory ministry of the Earl of Liverpool. In the circumstances of increasing public discontent and calls for parliamentary reform, the Prince survived an assassination attempt as he was going to Westminster to open the session of parliament (28 Jan 1817). In response to a public massacre in Manchester ('Peterloo', 1819) and other public disorder, six bills were introduced to curtail seditious meetings and newspapers. George ascended to the British throne as George IV on the death of his father after nine years of the Regency (1811-1820). The new king's public image suffered from a protracted investigation into charges of adultery against Princess Caroline (from 1820 Queen Caroline). She was refused admission to the ceremony of coronation and died on 7 Aug 1821. In 1825 speculation in stocks and shares drained the Bank of England and brought about a monetary crisis. The incapacity of the Earl of Liverpool allowed George IV to pick up his successor, George Canning, but the latter died on 8 Aug 1827. The appointment of the Duke of Wellington as First Lord of the Treasury marked the beginning of Catholic emancipation, which the king opposed. However, the Catholic Emancipation Bill, introduced in the House of Commons, was passed and received the Royal Assent on 13 Apr 1829.