MARY II

Mary II

b. 30 Apr 1662, London
d. 28 Dec 1694, London

Title: By the Grace of God, Queen of England, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, etc. (Dei Gratia, Angliae, Franciae et Hiberniae Regina, Fidei Defensor, etc.) (see note) [13 Feb 1689 - 11 May 1689]
  By the Grace of God, Queen of England, Scotland, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, etc. (Dei Gratia, Angliae, Scotiae, Franciae et Hiberniae Regina, Fidei Defensor, etc.) (see note) [11 May 1689 - 28 Dec 1694]
Term: 13 Feb 1689 - 28 Dec 1694
Chronology: 13 Feb 1689, accepted the crown offered by a Declaration of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, and Commons of 12 Feb 1689
  11 Apr 1689, crowned, Westminster Abbey
  11 May 1689, accepted the crown of Scotland offered by the Estates of the Kingdom of Scotland on 11 Apr 1689
  28 Dec 1694, died
Names/titles: Princess of Orange [from 4 Nov 1677]
Biography:

Mary was the daughter of King James II and his first wife, Anne Hyde. Although his father converted to Roman Catholicism, Mary remained a Protestant and was married to her cousin William, Prince of Orange, on 4 Nov 1677. In 1688, the Protestant opposition in England initiated the Glorious Revolution, which forced James into exile. The Convention, summoned by the Prince of Orange, who invaded England in November 1688, issued the Declaration of Rights (12 Feb 1689). This document declared that James II abdicated the Government and offered the crown to William and Mary as joint sovereigns.

Mary, who had lived in the Netherlands, arrived to England on 12 Feb 1688. On the Ash Wednesday (13 Feb 1689), she and her husband were formally presented with the Declaration and accepted the crown in ceremonies at the Banqueting Hall in Whitehall Palace. They were immediately proclaimed King William III and Queen Mary II. On 11 Apr 1689 the Estates of Scotland approved the "Claim of Right" and declared that James II had "forfeited" the throne, which was therefore vacant, and also offered it to William and Mary. They accepted the offer in Whitehall on 11 May 1689, and were on that day proclaimed King and Queen of Scotland.

Mary administered the government while William was campaigning in Ireland (1690-1691) and on the Continent (1692-1694). She was also actively concerned with ecclesiastical appointments. Mary died of smallpox at the age of 32. [1; 2; 3]


[1] Handbook of British Chronology (1986)
[2] "The Glorious Revolution of 1688," by Maurice Ashley (Hodder and Stoughton, London, 1966).
[3] "The Declaration of Rights," by Lois G. Schwoerer (The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore and London, 1981).
  Image: portrait of Queen Mary II after William Wissing, c. 1690.
Last updated on: 14 Mar 2010 03:57:44