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Baldwin, Stanley

Stanley Baldwin

b. 3 Aug 1867, Bewdley, Worcestershire
d. 14 Dec 1947, Astley Hall, near Stourport-on-Severn, Worcestershire

Title: Prime Minister and First Lord of the Treasury
Term: 22 May 1923 - 22 Jan 1924
Chronology: 22 May 1923, accepted the offer to hold the post of Prime Minister and First Lord of the Treasury, audience of the King, Buckingham Palace, London [1][2]
25 May 1923, took the oath of office as First Lord of the Treasury before the King in Council, Buckingham Palace, London [3]
22 Jan 1924, tendered resignation as Prime Minister and First Lord of the Treasury (accepted), audience of the King, Buckingham Palace, London [4]
Term: 4 Nov 1924 - 4 Jun 1929
Chronology: 4 Nov 1924, invited to form an Administration and accepted the offer to hold the post of Prime Minister and First Lord of the Treasury, audience of the King, Buckingham Palace, London [5][6]
7 Nov 1924, took the oath of office as First Lord of the Treasury before the King in Council, Buckingham Palace, London [7]
4 Jun 1929, tendered resignation as Prime Minister and First Lord of the Treasury (accepted), audience of the King, Windsor Castle [8]
Term: 7 Jun 1935 - 28 May 1937
Chronology: 7 Jun 1935, accepted the offer to hold the post of Prime Minister and First Lord of the Treasury, audience of the King, Buckingham Palace, London [9][10]
7 Jun 1935, took the oath of office as First Lord of the Treasury before the King in Council, Buckingham Palace, London [11]
28 May 1937, tendered resignation as Prime Minister and First Lord of the Treasury (accepted), audience of the King, Buckingham Palace, London [12]
Names/titles: Sir Stanley Baldwin (from 28 May 1937, Knight Companion of the Most Noble Order of the Garter) [13]; Viscount Coverdale, of Coverdale in the County of Salop, and Earl Baldwin of Bewdley (from 8 Jun 1937) [14]
Biography:
Son of Alfred Baldwin, iron and steel manufacturer from Worcestershire, Conservative MP (Bewdley, 1892-1908); attended Hawtrey's Preparatory School near Slough, Berkshire (1877-1881); was educated at St. Michael's School, Harrow (1881-1885); studied at Trinity College, Cambridge (1885-1888); received BA (Third Class in History Tripos, 1888) and MA degrees (1892); spent next few years working in the family business, E.P. & W. Baldwin (later Baldwins Ltd.); was returned to Parliament as Unionist/Conservative MP for Bewdley (1908-1937), the constituency his father represented; served as Parliamentary Private Secretary to Bonar Law (1916-1917); appointed one of the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury (26 Jan 1917 - 21 Jun 1917), but soon moved to the position of Financial Secretary to the Treasury (1917-1921); sworn in as a member of the UK Privy Council (11 Jun 1920); served as President of the Board of Trade (5 Apr 1921 - 25 Oct 1922) and Chancellor of the Exchequer (25 Oct 1922 - 11 Oct 1923) in the Cabinets of David Lloyd-George and Bonar Law; as Chancellor of the Exchequer arranged for the settlement of the American debt; in consequence of the resignation of Bonar Law from the premiership on account of ill health, he accepted the post of Prime Minister and First Lord of the Treasury (22 May 1923 - 22 Jan 1924), continuing also as Chancellor of the Exchequer until Neville Chamberlain succeeded him [15]; elected Leader of the Conservative Party (28 May 1923 - 31 May 1937); as the General Election (1923) on the tariff and free trade issues did not bring an overall majority to any party (Unionist/Conservative 258, Labour 191, Liberal 159, others 7), the Government was defeated at the end of the debate on the Address and Baldwin resigned (22 Jan 1924); was asked to form his second administration following the defeat of the Labour Government in the General Election (1924); served as Prime Minister and First Lord of the Treasury (4 Nov 1924 - 4 Jun 1929); was concerned with housing and social welfare, seeking to bind the country and its classes together; held a firm conservative line at the General Strike of 1926, leaving action to his Chancellor of the Exchequer Winston Spencer-Churchill and others; under pressure from his own party, he pursued anti-labour policy (1927) through the amendment of the Trade Disputes Act of 1906, restricting certain powers of the unions; in July 1928 the franchise was extended to women of 21 and upwards on the same terms as men; the 1929 General Election over the issues of unemployment and the Trade Disputes Act made the balance of power dependent on the Liberals (Labour 287, Unionist/Conservative 260, Liberal 59, Nationalist Party 3, others 6) and he resigned on 4 Jun 1929; took office as Lord President of the Council (26 Aug 1931 - 7 Jun 1935) in the National Government under his chief political opponent, Ramsay MacDonald; held the office of Lord Privy Seal (1 Oct 1932 - 6 Jan 1934); succeeded MacDonald as Prime Minister and First Lord of the Treasury (7 Jun 1935 - 28 May 1937); achieved a comfortable majority at the General Election of 1935: National Government 431 (Unionist/Conservative 387, Liberal National 33, National Labour 8, National 3), Opposition 184 (Labour 154, Liberal 17, Independent Liberal 4, Independent Labour 4, others 5); failed to respond energetically enough to the emerging threats from Germany and Italy (occupation of the Rhineland and conquest of Ethiopia in 1936); succeeded in procuring the abdication of King Edward VIII during the Abdication Crisis (1936); nominated Neville Chamberlain as his successor and tendered his resignation on 28 May 1937; accepted an earldom (8 Jun 1937) and retired from politics.
Biographical sources: "Baldwin: A Biography", by Keith Middlemas, John Barnes (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1969); The Times, No. 50,944, Late London Edition, London Monday December 15 1947, p. 4 (obituary).

[1] The Times, No. 43,348, Royal Edition, London, Wednesday, May 23, 1923, p. 13: "Court Circular. <...> The Right Hon. Stanley Baldwin, M.P., was received in audience by The King, who offered him the post of Prime Minister and First Lord of the Treasury, vacated by the Right Hon. A. Bonar Law, M.P. The Right Hon. Stanley Baldwin accepted His Majesty's Offer." The location of the audience which took place in the Buckingham Palace between 15:10 and 16:15 is indicated not in the Court Circular, but in an article headed "New Prime Minister" (Ibid., p. 10)
[2] Appointment as Lord Commissioner of the Treasury (prior to appointment as First Lord of the Treasury) by Letters Patent under the Great Seal is dated 6 Dec 1923, announced by the Crown Office 11 Dec 1922, and gazetted 12 Dec 1922 (The London Gazette, No. 32776, Tuesday, 12 December, 1922, p. 8793).
[3] The Times, No. 43,351, Royal Edition, London, Saturday, May 26, 1923, p. 13: "Court Circular. BUCKINGHAM PALACE, May 25. The King held a Council at 12 o'clock. <...> At the Council the Right Hon. Stanley Baldwin, M.P., was sworn First Lord of the Treasury, and kissed hands upon his appointment."; The London Gazette, No. 32826, Friday, 25 May, 1923, p. 3663.
[4] The Times, No. 43,556, Royal Edition, London, Wednesday, January 23, 1924, p. 15: "Court Circular. BUCKINGHAM PALACE, Jan. 22. <...> The Right Hon. Stanley Baldwin, M.P., had an audience of The King this morning, and tendered his resignation as Prime Minister and First Lord of the Treasury, which His Majesty was graciously pleased to accept. The King took leave of the Right Hon. Stanley Baldwin, M.P."
[5] The Times, No. 43,801, Royal Edition, London, Wednesday, November 5, 1924, p. 17: "Court Circular. BUCKINGHAM PALACE, Nov. 4. <...> The Right Hon. Stanley Baldwin was received in audience by The King this evening, and on His Majesty's invitation undertook to form an Administration, and kissed hands upon his appointment as Prime Minister and First Lord of the Treasury."
[6] Appointment as Lord Commissioner of the Treasury by Letters Patent under the Great Seal is dated 7 Nov 1924, announced by the Crown Office 11 Dec 1924, and gazetted 16 Dec 1924 (The London Gazette, No. 33002, Tuesday, 16 December, 1924, p. 9149).
[7] The Times, No. 43,804, Royal Edition, London, Saturday, November 8, 1924, p. 15: "Court Circular. BUCKINGHAM PALACE, Nov. 7. <...> The King held a Council at 11.30 o'clock. <...> The Right Hon. Stanley Baldwin was sworn First Lord of the Treasury."; The London Gazette, No. 32989, Friday, 7 November, 1924, p. 8041.
[8] The Times, No. 45,221, Royal Edition, London, Wednesday, June 5, 1929, p. 17: "Court Circular. WINDSOR CASTLE, June 4. The Right Hon. Stanley Baldwin, M.P., had an audience of The King this morning and tendered his resignation as Prime Minister and First Lord of the Treasury, which His Majesty was graciously pleased to accept."
[9] The Times, No. 47,085, Royal Edition, London Saturday June 8 1935, p. 17: "Court Circular - BUCKINGHAM PALACE, June 7. <...> The King subsequently received in audience the Right Hon. Stanley Baldwin, M.P. and offered to him the post of Prime Minister and First Lord of the Treasury. The Right Hon. Stanley Baldwin, M.P., accepted His Majesty's offer, and kissed hands upon his appointment."
[10] Appointment as Lord Commissioner of the Treasury by Letters Patent under the Great Seal is dated 8 Jun 1935, announced by the Crown Office 28 Jun 1935, and gazetted 2 Jul 1935 (The London Gazette, No. 34176, Tuesday, 2 July, 1935, p. 4240).
[11] The Times, No. 47,085, Royal Edition, London Saturday June 8 1935, p. 17: "Court Circular - BUCKINGHAM PALACE, June 7. <...> The King held a Council at 6 o'clock this evening. <...> The Right Hon. Stanley Baldwin, M.P., was sworn First Lord of the Treasury."; The London Gazette, No. 34169, Tuesday, 11 June, 1935, p. 3805.
[12] The Times, No. 47,697, Royal Edition, London Saturday May 29 1937, p. 17: "Court Circular - BUCKINGHAM PALACE, May 28 The Right Hon. Stanley Baldwin, M.P., had an audience of The King this morning and tendered his resignation as Prime Minister and First Lord of the Treasury, which His Majesty was graciously pleased to accept."
[13] The London Gazette, No. 34403, Tuesday, 1 June, 1937, p. 3508.
[14] The London Gazette, No. 34405, Tuesday, 8 June, 1937, p. 3663.
[15] Appointment of Neville Chamberlain was reported to have been approved by the King in The Times, No. 43,431, Royal Edition, London, Tuesday, August 28, 1923, p. 8, but he was on sick leave at Harrogate and did not receive the Seal of Office along with taking oath until 11 Oct 1923. The Seal remained with Baldwin until 11 Oct 1923 when Marquess of Salisbury delivered it up to the King on behalf of Baldwin.
Image: photograph, 1930.

This page was last updated on: 14 Mar 2010 03:55:23

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