Cánovas del Castillo, Antonio

Antonio Cánovas del Castillo Sánchez y Estébanez

b. 8 Feb 1828, Málaga
d. 8 Aug 1897, Santa Águeda, Guipuscoa

Title: Presidente del Consejo de Ministros (President of the Council of Ministers)
Term: 9 Jan 1875 - 12 Sep 1875
Chronology: 9 Jan 1875, appointed, royal decree (issued in Barcelona prior to arrival of Alfonso XII to Madrid from exile) [1][2]
12 Sep 1875, discharged, royal decree following a request for resignation [3]
Term: 2 Dec 1875 - 7 Mar 1879
Chronology: 2 Dec 1875, appointed, royal decree [4]
7 Mar 1879, discharged, royal decree following a request for resignation [5]
Term: 9 Dec 1879 - 8 Feb 1881
Chronology: 9 Dec 1879, appointed, royal decree [6]
8 Feb 1881, discharged, royal decree following a request for resignation [7]
Term: 18 Jan 1884 - 25 Nov 1885
Chronology: 18 Jan 1884, appointed, royal decree [8]
25 Nov 1885, functions of the Council of Ministers are considered to have been expired with the demise of the crown following the death of King Alfonso XII, letter of the Council of Ministers to the Reina Regente de España (Queen Regent of Spain) [9]
Title: Presidente interino del Consejo de Ministros (Interim President of the Council of Ministers)
Term: 25 Nov 1885 - 27 Nov 1885
Chronology: 25 Nov 1885, assumed the office of Interim President of the Council of Ministers in anticipation of appointment of a new government following the demise of the crown [9]
27 Nov 1885, discharged, royal decree following a request for resignation [10]
Title: Presidente del Consejo de Ministros (President of the Council of Ministers)
Term: 5 Jul 1890 - 23 Nov 1891
Chronology: 5 Jul 1890, appointed, royal decree [11]
23 Nov 1891, discharged, royal decree following a request for resignation [12]
Term: 23 Nov 1891 - 11 Dec 1892
Chronology: 23 Nov 1891, appointed, royal decree [12]
11 Dec 1892, discharged, royal decree following a request for resignation [13]
Term: 23 Mar 1895 - 8 Aug 1897
Chronology: 23 Mar 1895, appointed, royal decree [14]
8 Aug 1897, died (assassination) [15]
Other offices: Presidente del Ministerio-Regencia (President of the Ministry-Regency) [31 Dec 1874 - 13 Feb 1875] see details
Biography:
Born in the family of a school teacher; studied in Málaga; moved to Madrid after the death of his father (1845), where he lived under the protection of his mother's cousin, the writer Serafín Estébanez Calderón, and of the banker José Salamanca; worked in the bureau of railroad construction; studied in the University of Madrid, receiving a degree in law (1851); showed early interest in politics and Spanish history; was the author of many historical writings, including Historia de la decadencia de España desde el advenimiento al trono de Felipe III hasta Carlos II and Estudios del reinado de Felipe V; contributed to writing the Manifiesto de Manzanares (7 Jul 1854), a political program of the revolt led by General O'Donnell; elected to the Cortes as a deputy for Málaga (1854-1856, 1858-1866, 1867-1868); was sent on a diplomatic mission to Rome as agente de preces to the Holy See (1855-1857); governor of the Province of Cádiz (1857-1858); served as director general of the Administration of the Internal Affairs Ministry (1 Jul 1858 - 5 Sep 1860); elected to the Real Academia de la Historia (1860); subsecretary of the interior (22 Aug 1860 - 9 Jan 1863); served as minister of the interior (1 Mar 1864 - 16 Sep 1864), minister of overseas affairs (21 Jun 1865 - 10 Jul 1866), interim finance minister (28 May 1866 - 10 Jul 1866); after an abortive liberals' revolt (1866), returned to historical studies; was elevated to the Real Academia Española (1867); elected to the Cortes Constituyentes (Constituent Cortes, 1869-1871) as a deputy for Murcia; a supporter of the Borbón dynasty, he was a leading figure of conservative minority in the Constituent Cortes dominated by the republican radicals; opposed universal suffrage and freedom of religion; cast a blank bulletin at the election of Spanish king (16 Nov 1870); deputy of the Cortes for Murcia (1871-1872); was entrusted (22 Aug 1873) by the exiled Queen Isabel II on behalf of her son, future Alfonso XII, to promote the cause of restoration of the Borbón monarchy; following the proclamation of Alfonso XII as king (29 Dec 1874) by the military, formed a government as President of the Ministry-Regency (31 Dec 1874 - 13 Feb 1875); appointed President of the Council of Ministers, serving a number of terms during the reign of Alfonso XII (14 Jan 1875 - 12 Sep 1875, 2 Dec 1875 - 7 Mar 1879, 9 Dec 1879 - 8 Feb 1881, 18 Jan 1884 - 25 Nov 1885, interim 25 Nov 1885 - 27 Nov 1885); formed the Partido Conservador (Conservative Party), which under the Constitution of 1876 shared the power with the Partido Liberal (Liberal Party) headed by Práxedes Mariano Mateo-Sagasta y Escolar; succeeded in putting an end to the Third Carlist War (1872-1876); deputy of the Cortes, representing Madrid (1876-1878, 1879-1880, 1881-1885) and Murcia (1886-1890, 1891-1895, 1896-1897); during the regency of Queen María Cristina (17 May 1886 - 17 May 1902), again held the office of President of the Council of Ministers (5 Jul 1890 - 11 Dec 1892, 23 Mar 1895 - 8 Aug 1897); was assassinated by an Italian anarchist, at the spa Santa Águeda, Guipuscoa (8 Aug 1897).
Biographical sources: "Diccionario sucinto de Ministros de Hacienda", ed. by Alberto Rulla Babater (Madrid: Instituto de Estudios Fiscales, Ministerio de Hacienda, 1991).

[1] Gaceta de Madrid, domingo 10 de Enero de 1875. Núm. 10. P. 83.
[2] The extraordinary powers of Ministerio-Regencia for initial period of the reign of Alfonso XII were confirmed by a royal decree of 11 Jan 1875 (Gaceta de Madrid, jueves 14 de Enero de 1875. Núm. 14. PP. 115-116). When signing a decree on behalf of the Ministerio-Regencia, Cánovas del Castillo used the style Presidente del Ministerio-Regencia; all royal decrees countersigned by Cánovas del Castillo in the period ending 13 Feb 1875 bore the style Presidente del Consejo de Ministros.
[3] Gaceta de Madrid, domingo 12 de Setiembre de 1875. Núm. 255. P. 707.
[4] Gaceta de Madrid, viernes 3 de Diciembre de 1875. Núm. 337. P. 573.
[5] Gaceta de Madrid, sábado 8 de Marzo de 1879. Núm. 67. P. 685.
[6] Gaceta de Madrid, jueves 11 de Diciembre de 1879. Núm. 345. P. 727.
[7] Gaceta de Madrid, jueves 10 de Febrero de 1881. Núm. 41. P. 385.
[8] Gaceta de Madrid, domingo 20 de Enero de 1884. Núm. 20. P. 185.
[9] Gaceta de Madrid, jueves 26 de Noviembre de 1885. Núm. 330. P. 665.
[10] Gaceta de Madrid, sábado 28 de Noviembre de 1885. Núm. 332. P. 693.
[11] Gaceta de Madrid, martes 8 de Julio 1890. Núm. 189. P. 77.
[12] Gaceta de Madrid, martes 24 de Noviembre de 1891. Núm. 328. P. 605.
[13] Gaceta de Madrid, martes 13 de Diciembre de 1892. Núm. 348. P. 779.
[14] Gaceta de Madrid, domingo 24 de Marzo de 1895. Núm. 83. P. 1097.
[15] Gaceta de Madrid, lunes 9 de Agosto de 1897. Núm. 221. P. 535.
Last updated on: 26 Jun 2009 04:12:17