Carmona, Óscar

António Óscar de Fragoso Carmona

b. 24 Nov 1869, Lisbon
d. 18 Apr 1951, Lisbon

Title: Presidente do Ministério (President of the Ministry)
Term: 9 Jul 1926 - 18 Apr 1928
Chronology: 9 Jul 1926, appointed, decree of the Government of the Portuguese Republic [1]
  9 Jul 1926, functions of Head of State (Presidente da República) devolved on the ministers acting collectively according to the Constitution of 1911, Art. 38, § 3.°
  29 Nov 1926, authorized to exercise the functions of Head of State (Presidente da República) as Presidente, interino, da República Portuguesa, decree of the Government of the Portuguese Republic (dated 26 Nov 1926, effective upon publication 29 Nov 1926) [2]
  18 Apr 1928, successor appointed, decree of President of the Republic [3]
Names/titles: Presidente interino da República Portuguesa (Interim President of the Portuguese Republic) [29 Nov 1926 - 15 Apr 1928]; Presidente da República (President of the Republic) [15 Apr 1928 - 18 Apr 1951] [see details]
Born in the family of a military officer, who attained the rank of general; received primary education at Chaves; entered military college, graduating in 1888; attended a polytechnic school at Lisbon (1888-1890); educated at the Escola do Exército (Army Academy), completing course of the cavalry branch (1892); attended equestrian school at Vila Viçosa; pursued military career, successfully progressing in ranks: oficial (1893), alferes (1894), lieutenant (1899), captain (1907), major (1913), lieutenant-colonel (1916), colonel (1919), general (1922), marshal (1947); served on the committee for reorganization of the Army (1910); instructor at the Central School of Officers (1913-1914); assumed command of cavalry school at Torres Novas (1918-1922); appointed commander of the Fourth Military District (1922-1925); briefly served as war minister (15 Nov 1923 - 18 Dec 1923) in the Cabinet of António Ginestal Machado; took part in the conspiracy of May 1926, which succeeded in overthrowing the government of Bernardino Machado; managed to oust general Armando Gama Ochoa and took his place in informal military triumvirate (3 Jun 1926), which ruled Portugal after the coup; served as minister of foreign affairs (3 Jun 1926 - 6 Jul 1926); relieved of his ministerial post after a split with Gomes da Costa; led successful military coup (8 Jul 1926 - 9 Jul 1926); appointed President of the Ministry (9 Jul 1926 - 15 Apr 1928) and war minister (9 Jul 1926 - 29 Nov 1926); assumed the functions of Head of State (29 Nov 1926) in accordance with a governmental decree; elected President of the Republic by popular vote (1928); secured the passing of the Constitution of 1933, declaring Portugal a "unitary, corporatist republic"; was gradually superseded as a holder of real political power by António de Oliveira Salazar, who maintained the authoritarian regime of Estado Novo (1933-1974); re-elected by popular vote in 1935, 1942, and 1949; died in office. Biography source: [4]

[1] Diário do Govêrno, Sexta-feira 9 de Julho de 1926, I Série, Número 147, Suplemento, Decreto n.° 11:866.
[2] Diário do Govêrno, Segunda-feira 29 de Novembro de 1926, I Série, Número 267, Decreto n.° 12:740.
[3] The decree confirming the discharge of Carmona of the duties of Presidente do Ministério was apparently not issued (see Os presidentes e os governos da república..., op. cit.)
[4] "Os Presidentes da República Portuguesa", coord. by António Costa Pinto and Maria Inácia Rezola (Lisboa: Temas & Debates, 2001)
Last updated on: 26 Jun 2009 11:03:33