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Machado, Bernardino

Bernardino Luís Machado Guimarães

b. 28 Mar 1851, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
d. 29 Apr 1944, Alto Douro, Portugal

Title: Presidente da República (President of the Republic)
Term: 5 Oct 1915 - 11 Dec 1917
Chronology: 6 Aug 1915, elected, session of the Congresso da República (Congress of the Republic), Palácio do Congresso (São Bento), Lisbon [1]
5 Oct 1915, made an affirmation required by law at the ceremony of installation as President of the Republic, session of the Congress, Palácio do Congresso (São Bento), Lisbon [2]
11 Dec 1917, discharged, resolution of the Junta Revolucionária (Revolutionary Junta) [3]
  16 Jun 1919, resignation (dated 2 Jun 1919) submitted to the Congress (left unconsidered), session of the Congress, Palácio do Congresso (São Bento), Lisbon [4]
Term: 11 Dec 1925 - 31 May 1926
Chronology: 11 Dec 1925, elected, session of the Congresso da República (Congress of the Republic), Palácio do Congresso (São Bento), Lisbon [5]
11 Dec 1925, made an affirmation required by law at the ceremony of installation as President of the Republic, session of the Congress, Palácio do Congresso (São Bento), Lisbon [5]
31 May 1926, letter of resignation (dated 31 May 1926) submitted to the President of the Ministry [6]
Biography:

The son of António Luís Machado Guimarães barão de Joane (baron of Joane), a Brazilian noble; studied mathematics, philosophy and botany at the University of Coimbra (from 1866); graduated as licenciado (1875); became a professor at the Faculty of Philosophy in the University of Coimbra (1877); earned doctor's degree (1877); received another degree as licenciado in agriculture, zootechnics and rural economy (1883); elected to the Câmara dos Deputados (Chamber of Deputies, 1882-1887), representing the Renewal Party (Partido Regenerador); elected to the the Câmara dos Pares (Chamber of Peers, 1890-1893 and 1894-1895) as a representative of the University; served as minister of public works (1893) in the government of Hintze Ribeiro; joined (1903) the Portuguese Republican Party (Partido Republicano Português, PRP); president of the PRP executive board (1906-1909); again elected to the Chamber of Deputies (1910); minister of foreign affairs (5 Oct 1910 - 3 Sep 1911) in the Provisional Government after the fall of monarchy; elected a deputy of the Assembleia Nacional Constituinte (National Constituent Assembly, 1910-1911); unsuccessfully contested presidential election (1911), losing to Manuel de Arriaga; served as envoy (1912-1913) and then as ambassador plenipotentiary (1913-1914) of Portugal to Brazil; was appointed President of the Ministry (9 Feb 1914 - 12 Dec 1914), minister of the interior (9 Feb 1914 - 12 Dec 1914); also served as interim minister of foreign affairs (9 Feb 1914 - 23 Jun 1914), justice (23 Jun 1914 - 22 Jul 1914); as head of government, committed Portugal to the side of Great Britain in World War I; elected President of the Republic (6 Aug 1915); following the rightist revolution (5 Dec 1917), was asked to resign (9 Dec 1917), but refused; deprived of office and exiled (11 Dec 1917); lived in France (1917-1919); elected a member of the Senado (1919); appointed President of the Ministry (2 Mar 1921 - 23 May 1921), minister of the interior (2 Mar 1921 - 23 May 1921) and interim minister of agriculture (2 Mar 1921 - 4 May 1921, 19 May 1921 - 23 May 1921); lost presidential elections to Manuel Teixeira Gomes (1923); following the resignation of Teixeira Gomes, elected President of the Republic (11 Dec 1925); was forced to resign the presidency (31 May 1926) as a result of a military revolt; exiled after 1926 to France, became a vocal and virulent critic of Estado Novo; was allowed to return to Portugal (1940). Biography source: [7][8]

Elections:

Candidate
1st vote
(6 Aug 1915)
2nd vote
(6 Aug 1915)
3rd vote
(6 Aug 1915)
Bernardino Luís Machado Guimarães 71 75 134
António Xavier Correia Barreto 44 45 18
Abílio de Guerra Junqueiro 33 30 -
Duarte Leite Pereira da Silva 20 19 -
Augusto Manuel Alves da Veiga 4 2 -
Joaquim Pedro Martins 1 - -
José Ernesto de Sousa Caldas 1 - -
blank 15 12 27
total votes cast 189 183 179

Candidate
1st vote
(11 Dec 1925)
2nd vote
(11 Dec 1925)
Bernardino Luís Machado Guimarães 124 148
Duarte Leite Pereira da Silva 33 5
Francisco Gomes Teixeira 5 -
António Maria de Bettencourt Rodrigues 1 1
Carlos Belo de Morais 1 -
Afonso Augusto da Costa 1 -
José Jacinto Nunes 1 -
blank 5 5
total votes cast 170 160
Election results: 1915 [1], 1925 [4]. The results appearing in the Diário do Congresso (Sessão N.° 1. Em 11 de Dezembro de 1925) appear to have been miscalculated as total number of ballots cast in each round (170 and 160 respectively) does not correspond to the actual sums of ballots cast (171 and 159 respectively).

[1] Diário do Congresso. Sessão N.° 4. Em 6 de Agosto de 1915. P. 4.
[2] Diário do Congresso. Sessão N.° 7. Em 5 de Outubro de 1915. P. 5.
[3] Diário do Govêrno, I Série, No. 216, 12 Dec 1917.
[4] The resignation of Machado Guimarães drafted and signed in Paris 2 Jun 1919 was communicated to the Congress 16 Jun 1919 when it assembled for a session in Lisbon. The resolution drafted in the course of deliberations stated that the session itself was "illegitimate and unconstitutional" (ilegitima e inconstitutcional) since the Constitution of the Republic authorized the Congress to accept the resignation of the President currently exercising his duties (Presidente em exercicio). A motion to override the resolution of the Junta Revolucionária of 11 Dec 1917 depriving Machado Guimarães of his office also failed. See Diário do Congresso. Sessão N.° 4. Em 16 de Junho de 1919.
[5] Diário do Congresso. Sessão N.° 1. Em 11 de Dezembro de 1925. PP. 15-17.
[6] Diário do Govêrno, I Série, No. 124, 12 Jun 1926, p. 567.
[7] "Os Presidentes da República Portuguesa", coord. by António Costa Pinto and Maria Inácia Rezola (Lisboa: Temas & Debates, 2001)
[8] "Os presidentes e os governos da república no século XX", by Alberto Laplaine Guimarães... [et al.] (Lisboa: Caixa Geral de Depósitos, Imprensa Nacional - Casa da Moeda, 2000)

This page was last updated on: 02 Oct 2014 12:27:06

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