Carmona, Óscar

António Óscar de Fragoso Carmona

b. 24 Nov 1869, Lisbon
d. 18 Apr 1951, Lisbon

Title: Presidente interino da República Portuguesa (Interim President of the Portuguese Republic)
Term: 26 Nov 1926 - 15 Apr 1928
Chronology: 26 Nov 1926, President of the Ministry is authorised to exercise the functions of President of the Republic, decree of the Government of the Republic [1]
  29 Nov 1926, installed in office, public ceremony, Palácio do Congresso (São Bento), Lisbon [2]
Title: Presidente da República (President of the Republic)
Term: 15 Apr 1928 - 15 Apr 1935
Chronology: 14 Apr 1928, election to the office of President of the Republic is declared upon counting popular votes (cast 25 Mar 1928), session of the Supremo Tribunal de Justiça (Supreme Court of Justice) [3]
  15 Apr 1928, oath of office taken, public ceremony, Palácio do Congresso (São Bento), Lisbon [4]
  11 Apr 1933, extension of term by two years, Constitution of 11 Apr 1933 entered into force [5]
  15 Apr 1935, expiration of term
Term: 15 Apr 1935 - 15 Apr 1942
Chronology: 17 Mar 1935, election to the office of President of the Republic is declared upon counting popular votes (cast 17 Feb 1935), session of the Supremo Tribunal de Justiça (Supreme Court of Justice) [6]
  15 Apr 1935, commencement of term
  26 Apr 1935,  took an oath of office as President of the Republic, session of the Assembleia Nacional (National Assembly), Palácio da Assembleia Nacional (São Bento), Lisbon [7]
  15 Apr 1942, expiration of term
Term: 15 Apr 1942 - 15 Apr 1949
Chronology: 8 Mar 1942, election to the office of President of the Republic is declared upon counting popular votes (cast 8 Feb 1942), session of the Supremo Tribunal de Justiça (Supreme Court of Justice) [8]
  15 Apr 1942,  took an oath of office as President of the Republic, session of the Assembleia Nacional (National Assembly), Palácio da Assembleia Nacional (São Bento), Lisbon [9]
  15 Apr 1949, expiration of term
Term: 15 Apr 1949 - 18 Apr 1951
Chronology: 12 Mar 1949, election to the office of President of the Republic is declared upon counting popular votes (cast 13 Feb 1949), session of the Supremo Tribunal de Justiça (Supreme Court of Justice) [10]
  13 Apr 1949, solemn session of the Assembleia Nacional (National Assembly) scheduled for the swearing-in of the President of the Republic is postponed from 15 Apr 1949 to a later date, decision of the President of the National Assembly [11]
  15 Apr 1949, commencement of term
  20 Apr 1949,  took an oath of office as President of the Republic, session of the Assembleia Nacional (National Assembly), Palácio da Assembleia Nacional (São Bento), Lisbon [12]
  18 Apr 1951, died
Names/titles: Presidente do Ministério (President of the Ministry) [9 Jul 1926 - 18 Apr 1928] (see details)
Biography:
Born in the family of a military officer, who attained the rank of general; received primary education at Chaves; entered military college, graduating in 1888; attended a polytechnic school at Lisbon (1888-1890); educated at the Escola do Exército (Army Academy), completing course of the cavalry branch (1892); attended equestrian school at Vila Viçosa; pursued military career, successfully progressing in ranks: oficial (1893), alferes (1894), lieutenant (1899), captain (1907), major (1913), lieutenant-colonel (1916), colonel (1919), general (1922), marshal (1947); served on the committee for reorganization of the Army (1910); instructor at the Central School of Officers (1913-1914); assumed command of cavalry school at Torres Novas (1918-1922); appointed commander of the Fourth Military District (1922-1925); briefly served as war minister (15 Nov 1923 - 18 Dec 1923) in the Cabinet of António Ginestal Machado; took part in the conspiracy of May 1926, which succeeded in overthrowing the government of Bernardino Machado; managed to oust general Armando Gama Ochoa and took his place in informal military triumvirate (3 Jun 1926), which ruled Portugal after the coup; served as minister of foreign affairs (3 Jun 1926 - 6 Jul 1926); relieved of his ministerial post after a split with Gomes da Costa; led successful military coup (8 Jul 1926 - 9 Jul 1926); appointed President of the Ministry (9 Jul 1926 - 15 Apr 1928) and war minister (9 Jul 1926 - 29 Nov 1926); assumed the functions of Head of State (29 Nov 1926) in accordance with a governmental decree; elected President of the Republic by popular vote (1928); secured the passing of the Constitution of 1933, declaring Portugal a "unitary, corporatist republic"; was gradually superseded as a holder of real political power by António de Oliveira Salazar, who maintained the authoritarian regime of Estado Novo (1933-1974); re-elected by popular vote in 1935, 1942, and 1949; died in office.
Biographical sources: "Os Presidentes da República Portuguesa", coord. by António Costa Pinto and Maria Inácia Rezola (Lisboa: Temas & Debates, 2001) ; "Os presidentes e os governos da república no século XX", by Alberto Laplaine Guimarães... [et al.] (Lisboa: Caixa Geral de Depósitos, Imprensa Nacional - Casa da Moeda, 2000)
Elections:

Candidate Vote (25 Mar 1928)
António Óscar de Fragoso Carmona 774,415

Candidate Vote (17 Feb 1935)
António Óscar de Fragoso Carmona 743,763
blank/invalid 338

Candidate Vote (8 Feb 1942)
António Óscar de Fragoso Carmona  

Candidate Vote (13 Feb 1949)
António Óscar de Fragoso Carmona 941,863
José María Mendes Ribeiro Norton de Matos 4,789
blank/invalid 2,046
Sources for election results: Diário de Lisboa, Sabado, 14 de Abril de 1928, N.° 2152, p. 1 (as reported by electoral committee, excluding the votes cast in Portuguese Guinea, Sao Tome, Angola, East Timor and Macau); Diário do Govêrno, Quarta-feira 20 de Março de 1935, I Série, Número 64; Diário de Lisboa, Sabado, 12 de Março de 1949, N.° 9440, p. 1.

[1] Diário do Govêrno, Segunda-feira 29 de Novembro de 1926, I Série, Número 267, Decreto n.° 12:740 (passed by the Government on 26 Nov 1926 with immediate effect as required by Art. 5).
[2] Diário de Lisboa, Segunda-feira, 29 de Novembro de 1926, N.° 1734, p. 8.
[3] Diário de Lisboa, Sabado, 14 de Abril de 1928, N.° 2152, p. 1.
[4] Diário de Lisboa, Segunda-feira, 16 de Abril de 1928, N.° 2153, p. 1, 8; details of the upcoming ceremony are described in Diário de Lisboa, Sabado, 14 de Abril de 1928, N.° 2152, p. 8.
[5] The text of the Constitution was published in Diário do Governo on 22 Feb 1933, submitted to plebiscite on 19 Mar 1933, and entered into force on 11 Apr 1933 with publication of the results of the plebiscite in Diário do Governo.
[6] Diário do Govêrno, Quarta-feira 20 de Março de 1935, I Série, Número 64; Boletim Geral das Colónias, No. 117, Mar 1935, pp. 87-88.
[7] Diário das Sessões, n.° 47, 27 de Abril de 1935, p. 999; Diário de Lisboa, Sexta-feira, 26 de Abril de 1935, N.° 4467.
[8] ABC, Sevilla, No. 12,040, 10 Mar 1942, p. 6.
[9] Diário das Sessões, n.° 130, 16 de Abril de 1942, pp. 272; Diário de Lisboa, Quarta-feira, 15 de Abril de 1942, N.° 6966.
[10] Diário de Lisboa, Sabado, 12 de Março de 1949, N.° 9440, p. 1.
[11] Diário das Sessões, 2.° suplemento ao n.° 188, 13 de Abril de 1949.
[12] Diário das Sessões, n.° 189, 21 de Abril de 1949, p. 523.
Last updated on: 13 Jun 2016 07:05:24