Portugal: Usurpation: 1826-1834

15 Nov 1825 Effective date of the agreement between Portugal and Brazil by which King D. João VI resigns his rights to Brazil while keeping the imperial title by courtesy.
6 Mar 1826 João VI, on his deathbed, institutes a Governing Council presided by his daughter, Infanta Isabel Maria (in full: Isabel Maria da Conceição Joana Gualberta Anna Francisca de Assis Xavier de Paula e de Alcântara Antónia Rafaela Micaela Gabriela Joaquina Gonzaga de Bragança).
10 Mar 1826 João VI dies and the Governing Council proclaims his son, D. Pedro (Pedro I as emperor of Brazil), as Pedro IV, Rei de Portugal, and communicates the notice of the demise of the crown to D. Pedro, who was residing in Rio de Janeiro. The notice reached D. Pedro on 22 Apr 1826; on 26 Apr 1826 he confirmed the appointment of the Govering Council, but in the form of the Regency; and he apparently pondered whether he might in fact wear both crowns. It was made clear to him that the 1825 agreement was squarely in the way.
29 Apr 1826 D. Pedro decides to act incisively while he is king of Portugal. He issues the Carta Constitucional da Monarquia Portuguesa, superseding the "liberal" Constitution of 1822.
2 May 1826 D. Pedro abdicates the crown of Portugal "conditionally" in favour of his infant daughter Da. Maria da Glória, Princesa do Grão-Pará (born 4 Apr 1819). The abdication (which is published in the Official Gazette in Lisboa only on 12 Jul 1826) is conditioned on (i) the Carta Constitucional being officially accepted; (ii) D. Pedro's brother, D. Miguel, who is in exile for earlier misbehaviour, also swearing acceptance of the Carta, and (iii) D. Miguel marrying Da. Maria da Glória — all without specification of an explicit deadline.
31 Jul 1826 The Council of Regency swears acceptance of the Carta and immediately implements it regarding the organization of the government.
4 Oct 1826 D. Miguel, residing in Vienna (Wien), swears acceptance of the Carta.
29 Oct 1826 D. Miguel and Da. Maria da Glória are betrothed by proxy in Vienna.
3 Jul 1827 King Pedro IV appoints D. Miguel as his logar-tenente (deputy) in Portugal.
22 Feb 1828 D. Miguel arrives in Portugal. On 26 Feb 1828, D. Miguel, authorized by King Pedro IV, takes office as Príncipe Regente and swears: "Juro fidelidade no senhor D. Pedro IV e à senhora Da. Maria II, legítimos reis de Portugal, e entregar o govêrno do reino à senhora Rainha Da. Maria II, logo que ela chegue a maioridade."
3 Mar 1828 D. Pedro, in Rio de Janeiro, issues a decree making effective his abdication. Da. Maria da Glória becomes Queen Maria II. She leaves for Europe, intending to travel to Vienna, but the events in Portugal deflect her to London, where she arrives on 8 Oct 1828.
13 Mar 1828 D. Miguel issues a proclamation: "Hei por bem, em nome de El-Rei [sc. Pedro IV], usar da atribuição do poder moderador, no título v, capítulo 1, art. 74, par. 4°, da Carta Constitucional, e dissolver a câmara dos deputados."
3 May 1828 Três Estados do Reino (i.e, the Three Estates making up the traditional Côrtes) are summoned to meet.
30 Jun 1828 D. Miguel, relying on the assento (finding) of the Three Estates meeting from 23 Jun 1828 and the assent of the Conselho de Estado (Council of State), declares himself to be king. He is sworn in on 7 Jul 1828.
11 Jul 1828 Ratifying the decision of 30 Jun 1828, the Three Estates issue a unanimous assento proclaiming D. Miguel as Miguel I, Rei de Portugal e dos Algarves, "a quêm perteneceu a Corôa portuguesa desde o dia 10 de Março de 1826", i.e., retroactive to the death of D. João VI; they further provide that it is necessary to "reputar e declarar nulo o que o senhor D. Pedro, na qualidade de Rei de Portugal, que não le competia, praticou o decretou, e nomeadamente a chamada Carta constitucional da monarquia portuguesa, datada de 29 de Abril do dito ano de 1826."
  As D. Miguel assumes the throne, resistance begins to develop, notably in the Island of Terceira in the Azores, which denies the agents of D. Miguel their claim to take over the government. Very soon a civil war develops, with the Powers taking sides.
15 Jun 1829 D. Pedro, in his capacity as tutor (guardian) of the queen, his daughter, appoints a Council of Regency, with Pedro de Sousa Holstein, marquês de Palmela, conde de Sanfré, as Presidente do Conselho de Regência. It is, however, not before 15 Mar 1830 that the members of this Council reach Terceira, earlier blocked by a fleet of the intervening Powers. On 30 Aug 1829 Da. Maria II returns to Rio de Janeiro.
  The war begins to turn in favour of Da. Maria II, with Pôrto, early occupied and abandoned, developing into the centre of operations.
3 Mar 1832 Having abdicated the crown of Brazil, D. Pedro, duque de Bragança, assumes the title of Príncipe Regente, superseding the Palmela Council.
26 May 1834 The war ends with the capitulation of the forces supporting D. Miguel; the document issued on that date is known as Concessão de Évora Monte. D. Miguel leaves Portugal on 1 Jun 1834.
20 Sep 1834 Having been confirmed as regent by the Câmara de Deputados on 24 Aug 1834, but finding himself incapacitated on 18 Sep 1834, D. Pedro resigns the regency, and on this date Da. Maria II is officially declared to be of age.
24 Sep 1834 D. Pedro dies.
Last updated on: 24 Oct 2011 13:06:49