Ottoman Empire: Rulers: 1453-1922

Ruling House: Âl-i Osman (Kayı boyu)
The names of each ruler appear as follows: a) name followed by ordinal number in parentheses (never used officially) and patronymic, b) name, patronymic and the invocation el-muzaffer daima ("the ever-victorious") as found on the calligraphic seal or signature known as tughra, c) nickname(s).
Date of a ruler's death concealed during the ensuing interregnum is marked with an asterisk (*).
Padışah [1]
29 May 1453 - 3 May 1481 Mehmed (II) bin Murad Han [2]
  tughra: Mehmed bin Murad Han muzaffer daima
  nicknames: Fatih Sultan Mehmed, Ebulfeth, Gazi
c. 20 May 1481 - 24 Apr 1512 Bayezid (II) bin Mehmed Han [3][4]
  tughra: Bayezid bin Mehmed Han muzaffer daima
  nicknames: Adlî, Sofu, Veli
24 Apr 1512 - 21 (or 22) Sep 1520* Selim-şah (I) bin Bayezid Han
  tughra: Selim-şah bin Bayezid Han el-muzaffer daima
  nickname: Yavuz Sultan Selim
30 Sep 1520 - 7 Sep 1566* Süleyman-şah (I) bin Selim-şah Han
  tughra: Süleyman-şah bin Selim-şah Han el-muzaffer daima
  nicknames: Kanuni Sultan Süleyman, Gazi, Muhteşem, Sahib-i Kiran, Sahib-ul Aşeret-el Kamilet
30 Sep 1566 - 15 Dec 1574* Selim-şah (II) bin Süleyman-şah Han
  tughra: Selim-şah bin Süleyman-şah Han el-muzaffer daima
  nicknames: Sarı, Mest, Sarhoş, Sığır
22 Dec 1574 - 16 Jan 1595* Şah Murad (III) bin Selim-şah Han
  tughra: Şah Murad bin Selim-şah Han el-muzaffer daima
27 Jan 1595 - 21 Dec 1603 Mehmed (III) bin Murad Han
  tughra: Mehmed bin Murad Han el-muzaffer daima
  nicknames: Adlî, Eğri-fatihi
21 Dec 1603 - 22 Nov 1617 Şah Ahmed (I) bin Mehmed Han
  tughra: Şah Ahmed bin Mehmed Han el-muzaffer daima
  nickname: Bahtî
22 Nov 1617 - 26 Feb 1618 Şah Mustafa (I) bin Mehmed Han
  tughra: Şah Mustafa bin Mehmed Han el-muzaffer daima
  nickname: Deli
26 Feb 1618 - 19 May 1622 Şah Osman (II) bin Ahmed Han
  tughra: Şah Osman bin Ahmed Han el-muzaffer daima
  nicknames: Genç Osman, Şehit
19 May 1622 - 10 Sep 1623 Şah Mustafa (I) bin Mehmed Han (x)
  tughra: Şah Mustafa bin Mehmed Han el-muzaffer daima
  nickname: Deli
10 Sep 1623 - 9 Feb 1640 Şah Murad (IV) bin Ahmed Han
  tughra: Şah Murad bin Ahmed Han el-muzaffer daima
  nicknames: Gazi, Fatih-i Bağdad, Sahib-i Kiran
9 Feb 1640 - 8 Aug 1648 Şah İbrahim bin Ahmed Han
  tughra: Şah İbrahim bin Ahmed Han el-muzaffer daima
  nickname: Deli
8 Aug 1648 - 9 Nov 1687 Şah Mehmed (IV) bin İbrahim Han
  tughra: Şah Mehmed bin İbrahim Han el-muzaffer daima
  nicknames: Avcı
9 Nov 1687 - 22 Jun 1691 Şah Süleyman (II) bin İbrahim Han
  tughra: Şah Süleyman bin İbrahim Han el-muzaffer daima
22 Jun 1691 - 6 Feb 1695 Şah Ahmed (II) bin İbrahim Han
  tughra: Şah Ahmed bin İbrahim Han el-muzaffer daima
6 Feb 1695 - 22 Aug 1703 Şah Mustafa (II) bin Mehmed Han
  tughra: Şah Mustafa bin Mehmed Han el-muzaffer daima
  nickname: Gazi
22 Aug 1703 - 1 Oct 1730 Şah Ahmed (III) bin Mehmed Han
  tughra: Şah Ahmed bin Mehmed Han el-muzaffer daima
1 Oct 1730 - 13 Dec 1754 Mahmud (I) Han bin Mustafa
  tughra: Mahmud Han bin Mustafa el-muzaffer daima
  nicknames: Gazi, Kambur
13 Dec 1754 - 30 Oct 1757 Osman (III) Han bin Mustafa
  tughra: Osman Han bin Mustafa el-muzaffer daima
30 Oct 1757 - 21 Jan 1774 Mustafa (III) Han bin Ahmed
  tughra: 1757-1763: Mustafa Han bin Ahmed; 1763-1774: Şah Mustafa bin Ahmed
21 Jan 1774 - 7 Apr 1789 Abdülhamid (I) Han bin Ahmed
  tughra: Abdülhamid Han bin Ahmed el-muzaffer daima
7 Apr 1789 - 29 May 1807 Selim (III) Han bin Mustafa
  tughra: Selim Han bin Mustafa el-muzaffer daima
  nicknames: Cihandar, İlhami
29 May 1807 - 28 Jul 1808 Mustafa (IV) Han bin Abdülhamid
  tughra: Mustafa Han bin Abdülhamid el-muzaffer daima
28 Jul 1808 - 1 Jul 1839 Mahmud (II) Han bin Abdülhamid
  tughra: Mahmud Han bin Abdülhamid el-muzaffer daima Adlî
1 Jul 1839 - 25 Jun 1861 Abdülmecid (I) Han bin Mahmud
  tughra: Abdülmecid Han bin Mahmud el-muzaffer daima
  nickname: Gazi
25 Jun 1861 - 30 May 1876 Abdülâziz (I) Han bin Mahmud
  tughra: Abdülâziz Han bin Mahmud el-muzaffer daima
30 May 1876 - 31 Aug 1876 Mehmed Murad (V) Han bin Abdülmecid
  tughra: Mehmed Murad Han bin Abdülmecid el-muzaffer daima
31 Aug 1876 - 27 Apr 1909 Abdülhamid (II) Han bin Abdülmecid
  tughra: Abdülhamid Han bin Abdülmecid el-muzaffer daima, el-gazi
  nicknames: Kanlı, Bedros
27 Apr 1909 - 3 Jul 1918 Mehmed (V) Han bin Abdülmecid
  tughra: Mehmed Han bin Abdülmecid el-muzaffer daima, Reşad, el-gazi
4 Jul 1918 - 4 Nov 1922 Mehmed (VI) Vahideddin Han bin Abdülmecid [5]
  tughra: Mehmed Vahideddin Han bin Abdülmecid el-muzaffer daima
  nicknames: Kara

[1] On style see Notes.
[2] Also ruled during father's abdication (Dec 1444 - May 1446).
[3] The commencement of the reign of Bayezid (II) is deemed to have begun upon his entrance into Istanbul and accession to the throne. Authorities differ on the date of arrival which apparently took place on a day between 19 and 23 May 1481.
[4] Padışah (in dissidence)
  31 May 1481 - 20 Jun 1481 Cem (Cem bin Mehmed Han)
[5] Authority of the Ottoman Empire was derecognised by a resolution of the Constituent Assembly of Turkey passed 2 Nov 1922 (dated "1/2 teşrinisani 1338", i.e. 1/2 Nov 1922). Ottoman government in Istanbul effectively collapsed 4 Nov 1922; Vahideddin left the national territory 17 Nov 1922 and was deposed as Halife 19 Nov 1922.
Last updated on: 22 Apr 2018 02:53:52