Ottoman Empire: Heads of State: 1453-1922

Ruling House: Âl-i Osman (Kayı boyu)
The names of each ruler appear as follows: a) official name as found on the calligraphic seal or signature known as tughra, b) historical name with ordinal number in parentheses, c) nickname(s) or lakapları in italics; date of a ruler's death concealed during the ensuing interregnum is maked with an asterisk (*).
Padışah [1]
29 May 1453 - 3 May 1481* Mehmed bin Murad Hân (II. Mehmed) Fatih Sultan Mehmed, Ebulfeth, Gazi [2]
4 May 1481 - 24 Apr 1512 Bayezid bin Mehmed Hân (II. Bayezid) Adlî, Sofu, Veli [3]
24 Apr 1512 - 22 Sep 1520* Selimşah bin Bayezid Hân (I. Selim) Yavuz Sultan Selim
30 Sep 1520 - 7 Sep 1566* Süleymanşah bin Selimşah Hân (I. Süleyman) Kanuni Sultan Süleyman, Gazi, Muhteşem, Sahib-i Kiran, Sahib-ul Aşeret-el Kamilet
30 Sep 1566 - 15 Dec 1574* Selimşah bin Süleymanşah Hân (II. Selim) Sarı, Mest, Sarhoş, Sığır
21 Dec 1574 - 16 Jan 1595* Şah Murad bin Selimşah Hân (III. Murad)
27 Jan 1595 - 21 Dec 1603 Mehmed bin Murad Hân (III. Mehmed) Adlî, Eğri-fatihi
21 Dec 1603 - 22 Nov 1617 Şah Ahmed bin Mehmed Hân (I. Ahmed) Bahtî
22 Nov 1617 - 26 Feb 1618 Şah Mustafa bin Mehmed Hân (I. Mustafa) Deli
26 Feb 1618 - 19 May 1622 Şah Osman bin Ahmed Hân (II. Osman) Genç Osman, Şehit
19 May 1622 - 10 Sep 1623 Şah Mustafa bin Mehmed Hân (I. Mustafa) Deli (x)
10 Sep 1623 - 8 Feb 1640 Şah Murad bin Ahmed Hân (IV. Murad) Gazi, Fatih-i Bağdad, Sahib-i Kiran
8 Feb 1640 - 8 Aug 1648 Şah İbrahim bin Ahmed Hân (I. İbrahim) Deli
8 Aug 1548 - 8 Nov 1687 Şah Mehmed bin İbrahim Hân (IV. Mehmed) Avcı
9 Nov 1687 - 22 Jun 1691 Şah Süleyman bin İbrahim Hân (II. Süleyman)
23 Jun 1691 - 6 Feb 1695 Şah Ahmed bin İbrahim Hân (II. Ahmed)
6 Feb 1695 - 22 Aug 1703 Şah Mustafa bin Mehmed Hân (II. Mustafa) Gazi
22 Aug 1703 - 1 Oct 1730 Şah Ahmed bin Mehmed Hân (III. Ahmed)
1 Oct 1730 - 13 Dec 1754 Mahmud Hân bin Mustafa (I. Mahmud) Gazi, Kanbur
14 Dec 1754 - 30 Oct 1757 Osman Hân bin Mustafa (III. Osman)
30 Oct 1757 - 21 Jun 1774 Mustafa Hân bin Ahmed (III. Mustafa)
21 Jun 1774 - 7 Apr 1789 Abdülhamid Hân bin Ahmed (I. Abdülhamid)
7 Apr 1789 - 29 May 1807 Selim Hân bin Mustafa (III. Selim) Cihandar, İlhami
29 May 1807 - 28 Jul 1808 Mustafa Hân bin Abdülhamid (IV. Mustafa)
28 Jul 1808 - 1 Jul 1839 Mahmud Hân bin Abdülhamid, Adlî (II. Mahmud Adlî)
1 Jul 1839 - 25 Jun 1861 Abdülmecid Hân bin Mahmud (I. Abdülmecid) Gazi
25 Jun 1861 - 30 May 1876 Abdülâziz Hân bin Mahmud (I. Abdülâziz)
30 May 1876 - 31 Aug 1876 Mehmed Murad Hân bin Abdülmecid (V. Murad)
31 Aug 1876 - 27 Apr 1909 Abdülhamid Hân bin Abdülmecid (II. Abdülhamid) Gazi, Kanlı, Bedros
27 Apr 1909 - 3 Jul 1918 Mehmed Hân bin Abdülmecid, Reşad (V. Mehmed Reşad) Gazi
4 Jul 1918 - 1 Nov 1922 Mehmed Vahideddin Hân bin Abdülmecid (VI. Mehmed Vahideddin) Kara [4]

[1] On style see Notes.
[2] Also ruled during father's abdication (Dec 1444 - May 1446).
[3] Padışah (in dissidence)
  28 May 1481 - 23 Jun 1481 Cem bin Mehmed Hân (Cem)
[4] Authority of the Ottoman Empire is derecognized by the Constituent Assembly of Turkey (resolution dated 1 Nov 1922, adopted 2 Nov 1922); Ottoman government in Constantinople effectively collapses 4 Nov 1922; Vahideddin deposed as Halife 19 Nov 1922.
Last updated on: 26 Jun 2009 04:00:09