Ottoman Empire: Rulers: 1453-1922

Ruling House: Âl-i Osman (Kayı boyu)
The names of each ruler appear as follows: a) given name followed by ordinal number in parentheses (never used officially) and patronymic, b) name, patronymic and the invocation el-muzaffer daima ("the ever-victorious") as found on the calligraphic seal or signature known as tughra, c) nicknames and epithets.
Date of a ruler's death concealed during the ensuing interregnum is marked with an asterisk (*).
Padışah | Padishah[1]
29 May 1453 - 3 May 1481 Mehmed (II) bin Murad Hân [2]
  tughra: Mehmed bin Murad Hân muzaffer daima
  nicknames and epithets: Fatih Sultan Mehmed, Ebulfeth, Gazi
c. 20 May 1481 - 24 Apr 1512 Bayezid (II) bin Mehmed Hân [3][4]
  tughra: Bayezid bin Mehmed Hân muzaffer daima
  nicknames and epithets: Adlî, Sofu, Veli
24 Apr 1512 - 21 (or 22) Sep 1520* Selim-şah (I) bin Bayezid Hân
  tughra: Selim-şah bin Bayezid Hân el-muzaffer daima
  nicknames and epithets: Yavuz Sultan Selim
30 Sep 1520 - 7 Sep 1566* Süleyman-şah (I) bin Selim-şah Hân
  tughra: Süleyman-şah bin Selim-şah Hân el-muzaffer daima
  nicknames and epithets: Kanuni Sultan Süleyman, Gazi, Muhteşem, Sahib-i Kiran, Sahib-ul Aşeret-el Kamilet
30 Sep 1566 - 15 Dec 1574* Selim-şah (II) bin Süleyman-şâh Hân
  tughra: Selim-şah bin Süleyman-şah Hân el-muzaffer daima
  nicknames and epithets: Sarı, Mest, Sarhoş, Sığır
22 Dec 1574 - 16 Jan 1595* Şah Murad (III) bin Selim-şah Hân
  tughra: Şah Murad bin Selim-şah Hân el-muzaffer daima
27 Jan 1595 - 21 Dec 1603 Mehmed (III) bin Murad Hân
  tughra: Mehmed bin Murad Hân el-muzaffer daima
  nicknames and epithets: Adlî, Eğri-fatihi
21 Dec 1603 - 22 Nov 1617 Şah Ahmed (I) bin Mehmed Hân
  tughra: Şah Ahmed bin Mehmed Hân el-muzaffer daima
  nicknames and epithets: Bahtî
22 Nov 1617 - 26 Feb 1618 Şah Mustafa (I) bin Mehmed Hân
  tughra: Şah Mustafa bin Mehmed Hân el-muzaffer daima
  nicknames and epithets: Deli
26 Feb 1618 - 19 May 1622 Şah Osman (II) bin Ahmed Hân
  tughra: Şah Osman bin Ahmed Hân el-muzaffer daima
  nicknames and epithets: Genç Osman, Şehit
19 May 1622 - 10 Sep 1623 Şah Mustafa (I) bin Mehmed Hân (x)
  tughra: Şah Mustafa bin Mehmed Hân el-muzaffer daima
  nicknames and epithets: Deli
10 Sep 1623 - 9 Feb 1640 Şah Murad (IV) bin Ahmed Hân
  tughra: Şah Murad bin Ahmed Hân el-muzaffer daima
  nicknames and epithets: Gazi, Fatih-i Bağdad, Sahib-i Kiran
9 Feb 1640 - 8 Aug 1648 Şah İbrahim bin Ahmed Hân
  tughra: Şah İbrahim bin Ahmed Hân el-muzaffer daima
  nicknames and epithets: Deli
8 Aug 1648 - 9 Nov 1687 Şah Mehmed (IV) bin İbrahim Hân
  tughra: Şah Mehmed bin İbrahim Hân el-muzaffer daima
  nicknames and epithets: Avcı
9 Nov 1687 - 22 Jun 1691 Şah Süleyman (II) bin İbrahim Hân
  tughra: Şah Süleyman bin İbrahim Hân el-muzaffer daima
22 Jun 1691 - 6 Feb 1695 Şah Ahmed (II) bin İbrahim Hân
  tughra: Şah Ahmed bin İbrahim Hân el-muzaffer daima
6 Feb 1695 - 22 Aug 1703 Şah Mustafa (II) bin Mehmed Hân
  tughra: Şah Mustafa bin Mehmed Hân el-muzaffer daima
  nicknames and epithets: Gazi
22 Aug 1703 - 1 Oct 1730 Şah Ahmed (III) bin Mehmed Hân
  tughra: Şah Ahmed bin Mehmed Hân el-muzaffer daima
1 Oct 1730 - 13 Dec 1754 Mahmud (I) Hân bin Mustafa Hân
  tughra: Mahmud Hân bin Mustafa el-muzaffer daima
  nicknames and epithets: Gazi, Kambur
13 Dec 1754 - 30 Oct 1757 Osman (III) Hân bin Mustafa Hân
  tughra: Osman Hân bin Mustafa el-muzaffer daima
30 Oct 1757 - 21 Jan 1774 Mustafa (III) Hân bin Ahmed Hân
  tughra: 1757-1763: Mustafa Hân bin Ahmed el-muzaffer daima; 1763-1774: Şah Mustafa bin Ahmed el-muzaffer daima
21 Jan 1774 - 7 Apr 1789 Abdülhamid (I) Hân bin Ahmed Hân
  tughra: Abdülhamid Hân bin Ahmed el-muzaffer daima
7 Apr 1789 - 29 May 1807 Selim (III) Hân bin Mustafa Hân
  tughra: Selim Hân bin Mustafa el-muzaffer daima
  nicknames and epithets: Cihandar, İlhami
29 May 1807 - 28 Jul 1808 Mustafa (IV) Hân bin Abdülhamid Hân
  tughra: Mustafa Hân bin Abdülhamid el-muzaffer daima
28 Jul 1808 - 1 Jul 1839 Mahmud (II) Hân bin Abdülhamid Hân
  tughra: Mahmud Hân bin Abdülhamid el-muzaffer daima Adlî
  nicknames and epithets: Adlî, Gazi
1 Jul 1839 - 25 Jun 1861 Abdülmecid (I) Hân bin Mahmud Hân
  tughra: Abdülmecid Hân bin Mahmud el-muzaffer daima
  nicknames and epithets: Gazi
25 Jun 1861 - 30 May 1876 Abdülâziz (I) Hân bin Mahmud Hân
  tughra: Abdülâziz Hân bin Mahmud el-muzaffer daima
30 May 1876 - 31 Aug 1876 Mehmed Murad (V) Hân bin Abdülmecid Hân
  tughra: Mehmed Murad Hân bin Abdülmecid el-muzaffer daima
31 Aug 1876 - 27 Apr 1909 Abdülhamid (II) Hân bin Abdülmecid Hân
  tughra: Abdülhamid Hân bin Abdülmecid el-muzaffer daima, el-gazi
  nicknames and epithets: Kanlı, Bedros
27 Apr 1909 - 3 Jul 1918 Mehmed (V) Hân bin Abdülmecid Hân
  tughra: Mehmed Hân bin Abdülmecid el-muzaffer daima, Reşad, el-gazi
4 Jul 1918 - 4 Nov 1922 Mehmed (VI) Vahideddin Hân bin Abdülmecid Hân [5]
  tughra: Mehmed Vahideddin Hân bin Abdülmecid el-muzaffer daima
  nicknames and epithets: Kara

[1] On style see Notes.
[2] Also ruled during father's abdication (Dec 1444 - May 1446).
[3] The commencement of the reign of Bayezid (II) is deemed to have begun upon his entrance into Istanbul and accession to the throne. Authorities differ on the date of arrival which apparently took place on a day between 19 and 23 May 1481.
[4] Padışah (in dissidence)
  31 May 1481 - 20 Jun 1481 Cem (Cem bin Mehmed Hân)
[5] Authority of the Ottoman Empire was derecognised by a resolution of the Constituent Assembly of Turkey passed 2 Nov 1922 (dated "1/2 teşrinisani 1338", i.e. 1/2 Nov 1922). Ottoman government in Istanbul effectively collapsed 4 Nov 1922; Vahideddin left the national territory 17 Nov 1922 and was deposed as halife 19 Nov 1922.
Last updated on: 10 Jun 2018 06:23:48