Mughal Empire: Heads of State: 1526-1858

The rulers are referred to by the names that were in official use at the time of their reigns; the names listed in parentheses are those before accession if not indicated otherwise (posthumous); italicised parts of the official names are bynames/epithets assigned to the rulers by others.
Pādshāh
27 May 1526 - 26 Dec 1530 al-Sulṭān al-A‘zām wa al-Khāqān al-Mukarram Ẓahīr al-Dīn Jalāl al-Dīn Muḥammad Bābur Pādshāh-i Ghāzī (Muḥammad Bābur bin ‘Umar Shaykh; posthumous: Firdaws Makāmi)
29 Dec 1530 - 17 May 1540 al-Sulṭān al-A‘zām wa al-Khāqān al-Mukarram Jām-i Salṭanat-i Ḥaqīqī wa Majazī Sayyid al-Salāṭīn Nāṣir al-Dīn Abū al-Muẓaffar Muḥammad Humāyūn Pādshāh-i Ghāzī Ẓill Allāh (Muḥammad Humāyūn bin Bābur Pādshāh; posthumous: Jannat Āshiyānī)
17 May 1540 - 23 Jul 1555 superseded by the Suri Sultanate
23 Jul 1555 - 26 (or 27) Jan 1556 al-Sulṭān al-A‘zām wa al-Khāqān al-Mukarram Jām-i Salṭanat-i Ḥaqīqī wa Majazī Sayyid al-Salāṭīn Nāṣir al-Dīn Abū al-Muẓaffar Muḥammad Humāyūn Pādshāh-i Ghāzī Ẓill Allāh (Muḥammad Humāyūn bin Bābur Pādshāh; posthumous: Jannat Āshiyānī) (x)
14 Feb 1556 - 26 Oct 1605 al-Sulṭān al-A‘zām wa al-Khāqān al-Mukarram Imām-i ‘Ādil Sulṭān al-Islām Kāffat al-Anām Amīr al-Mu’minīn Khalīfat al-Muta‘ālī Jalāl al-Dīn Abū al-Fatḥ Muḥammad Akbar Ṣāḥib-i Zamān Pādshāh-i Ghāzī Ẓill Allāh (Badr al-Dīn Muḥammad Akbar bin Humāyūn Pādshāh; posthumous: ‘Arsh Āshiyānī) (x) [1]
2 Nov 1605 - 7 Nov 1627 al-Sulṭān al-A‘zām wa al-Khāqān al-Mukarram Khusraw-i Gītī Panāh Nūr al-Dīn Abū al-Muẓaffar Muḥammad Jahāngīr Pādshāh-i Ghāzī Ṣāḥib Qirān-i Thānī (Abū al-Fatḥ Muḥammad Sulṭān Salīm bin Akbar Pādshāh; posthumous: Jannat Makānī)
8 Nov 1627 - 23 Jan 1628 Sulṭān Dawar Bakhsh (Bulāqī bin Sulṭān Khusraw) [2]
24 Feb 1628 - 18 Jun 1658 al-Sulṭān al-A‘zām wa al-Khāqān al-Mukarram Shihāb al-Dīn Abū al-Muẓaffar Muḥammad Shāh Jahān Pādshāh-i Ghāzī Ẓill Allāh Sāḥib Qirān-i Thānī (Yusu Muḥammad Sulṭān Khurram Bakht Shāh Jahān bin Jahāngīr Pādshāh; posthumous: Firdaws Āshiyānī) [3][4]
31 Jul 1658 - 2 Mar 1707 al-Sulṭān al-A‘zām wa al-Khāqān al-Mukarram Muḥyī al-Dīn Abū al-Muẓaffar Muḥammad Awrangzīb Bahādur ‘Ālamgīr Pādshāh-i Ghāzī (Sulṭān Muḥammad Awrangzīb Bahādur bin Shāh Jahān Pādshāh) [3][5]
15 Mar 1707 - 19 Jun 1707 Pādshāh-i Mamālik Quṭb al-Dīn Abū al-Fayaz Muḥammad A‘zām Shāh-i ‘Ālī Jāh Ghāzī (Sulṭān Muḥammad A‘zām Shāh-i ‘Ālī Jāh)
27 Apr 1707 - 25 Feb 1712 Ṣāḥib Qirān-i Mu‘aẓẓam Shāh ‘Ālamgīr Quṭb al-Dīn Abū al-Naṣr Sayyid Muḥammad Shāh ‘Ālam Bahādur Shāh Pādshāh-i Ghāzī (posthumous: Khuld Manzil) (Sultān Muḥammad Mu‘aẓẓam, later Muḥammad Shāh ‘Ālam bin Awrangzīb ‘Ālamgīr Pādshāh) [6]
29 Feb 1712 - 17 Mar 1712 Sulṭān Azhar al-Dīn Muḥammad ‘Azīm al-Sha’n Bahādur bin Bahādur Shāh Pādshāh [7][8]
21 Apr 1712 - 10 Jan 1713 Shāhanshāh-i Ghāzī Mu‘izz al-Dīn Abū al-Fatḥ Muḥammad Jahāndār Shāh Ṣāḥib Qirān Pādshāh-i Jahān Ghāzī (Mu‘izz al-Dīn Muḥammad Jahāndār Shāh bin Bahādur Shāh Pādshāh; posthumous: Khuld Ārāmgāh)
21 Jan 1713 - 28 Feb 1719 Mu‘īn al-Dīn (or Jalāl al-Dīn) Abū al-Muẓaffar Muḥammad Farrukhsiyār Pādshāh-i Baḥr wa Barr (Muḥammad Farrukhsiyār Bahādur bin ‘Azīm al-Sha’n Pādshāh; posthumous: Shahīd-i Marḥūm)
1 Mar 1719 - 4 Jun 1719 Sulṭān Shams al-Dīn Abū al-Barakat Muḥammad Rāfī‘ al-Darajāt Pādshāh-i Ghāzī Shāhanshāh-i Baḥr wa Barr (Muḥammad Rāfī‘ al-Darajāt bin Rāfī‘ al-Sha’n) [9]
8 Jun 1719 - 18 Sep 1719 Muḥammad Shāh Jahān Thānī Pādshāh-i Ghāzī Shāhanshāh-i Baḥr wa Barr (Muḥammad Rāfī‘ al-Dawla Sulṭān Rāfī‘ al-Dīn bin Rāfī‘ al-Sha’n) [9]
29 Sep 1719 - 15 Apr 1748 Nāṣir al-Dīn Abū al-Fatḥ (from 20 Aug 1722 Abū al-Muẓaffar) Muḥammad Shāh Ṣāḥib Qirān-i Thānī Pādshāh-i Ghāzī Rawshan Akhtar (Muḥammad Shāh bin Jahān Shāh Pādshāh) [10]
30 Apr 1748 - 3 Jun 1754 Mujāhid al-Dīn Abū al-Naṣr Aḥmad Shāh Bahādur Pādshāh-i Ghāzī (Aḥmad Shāh bin Muḥammad Shāh Pādshāh)
3 Jun 1754 - 29 Nov 1759 ‘Azīz al-Dīn Abū al-Adl Muḥammad ‘Ālamgīr Ṣāḥib Qirān Pādshāh-i Ghāzī (Mu‘in al-Dawla Muḥammad ‘Azīz al-Dawla Bahādur bin Jahāndār Pādshāh)
11 Dec 1759 - 10 Oct 1760 Muḥyī al-Millat Muḥammad Shāh Jahān Thānī Pādshāh-i Ghāzī (Muḥyī al-Millat Muḥammad bin Muḥyī al-Sannat Muḥammad)
24 Dec 1759 - 1 Aug 1788 Jalāl al-Dīn Abū al-Muẓaffar Muḥammad Shāh ‘Ālam Ṣāḥib Qirān Pādshāh-i Ghāzī Hām al-Dīn (‘Abd Allāh ‘Alī Jawhar Shāh ‘Ālam Bahādur bin ‘Ālamgīr Pādshāh) [11]
29 Aug 1788 - 9 Oct 1788 Nāṣir al-Dīn Muḥammad Jahān Shāh Pādshāh (Bīdār Bakht Maḥmūd Shāh Bahādur bin Aḥmad Shāh Pādshāh)
16 Oct 1788 - 10 Nov 1806 Jalāl al-Dīn Abū al-Muẓaffar Muḥammad Shāh ‘Ālam Ṣāḥib Qirān Pādshāh-i Ghāzī Hām al-Dīn (‘Abd Allāh ‘Alī Jawhar Shāh ‘Ālam Bahādur bin ‘Ālamgīr Pādshāh) (x)
18 Nov 1806 - 28 Sep 1837 Mu‘īn al-Dīn Abū al-Naṣr Muḥammad Akbar Shāh Ṣāḥib Qirān-i Thānī Pādshāh-i Ghāzī (Mu‘īn al-Dīn Muḥammad Akbar Shāh Bahādur bin Shāh ‘Ālam Pādshāh)
29 Sep 1837 - 29 Mar 1858 Sirāj al-Dīn Abū al-Muẓaffar Muḥammad Bahādur Shāh Pādshāh-i Ghāzī (Muḥammad Bahādur Shāh bin Akbar Pādshāh) [12]

[1] Samrāṭ (in dissidence)
  7 Oct 1556 - 5 Nov 1556 Hemu Caṃdra Vikramāditya (Hemu Caṃdra Bhārgava)
[2] 8 Nov 1627 - ? Nov 1627 Sulṭān Shariyār bin Jahāngīr Pādshāh (in dissidence)
[3] ? Nov 1657 - 22 May 1660 Nāṣir al-Dīn Abū al-Fawz Muḥammad Tīmūr Sikandar Shāh Shujā‘ Bahādur Pādshāh-i Ghāzī Ṣāḥib Qirān-i Thānī (Sulṭān Muḥammad Shāh Shujā‘ Bahādur bin Shāh Jahān Pādshāh) (in dissidence)
[4] 25 Dec 1657 - 5 Jul 1658 Maruwwaj al-Dīn Abū al-Muẓaffar Muḥammad Murād Bakhsh Shāh Muḥammad Sikandar Pādshāh-i Ghāzī (Sulṭān Muḥammad Murād Bakhsh bin Shāh Jahān Pādshāh) (in dissidence)
[5] 11 Jan 1681 - ? Jan 1681 Sulṭān Muḥammad Akbar bin Awrangzīb ‘Ālamgīr Pādshāh (in dissidence)
[6] 27 Apr 1707 - 13 Jan 1709 Pādshāh Muḥammad Kām Bakhsh-i Dīnpanāh (Sulṭān Muḥammad Kām Bakhsh Bahādur bin Awrangzīb ‘Ālamgīr Pādshāh) (in dissidence)
[7] 29 Feb 1712 - 28 Mar 1712 Sulṭān Muḥammad Rāfī‘ al-Qādir Rāfī‘ al-Sha’n Bahādur bin Bahādur Shāh Pādshāh (in dissidence)
[8] 29 Feb 1712 - 27 Mar 1712 Jahān Shāh Bahādur bin Bahādur Shāh Pādshāh Khujasta Akhtar (in dissidence)
[9] 18 May 1719 - 12 Aug 1719 Muḥammad Shāh Nikūsiyār Tımūr Ṣāḥib Qirān Pādshāh-i Zamān (Muḥammad Nikūsiyār bin Sulṭān Muḥammad Akbar) (in dissidence)
[10] 12 Oct 1720 - 19 Nov 1720 Ẓahīr al-Dīn Abū al-Fatḥ Muḥammad Ibrāhīm Shāh-i Jahān (Rāfī‘ al-Qādir Sulṭān Muḥammad Ibrāhīm bin Rāfī‘ al-Shán) (in dissidence)
[11] In dissidence from 27 Oct 1759.
[12] May 1857 proclaimed with the style Pādshāh-i Hind.
Last updated on: 31 Oct 2009 00:10:38