López de Santa Anna, Antonio

Antonio de Padua María Severino López de Santa Anna y Pérez de Lebrón

b. 21 Feb 1794, Xalapa (Jalapa), Veracruz
d. 21 Jun 1876, Mexico City

Title: Presidente de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos (President of the Mexican United States)
Term: 1 Apr 1833 - 1 Apr 1837
Chronology: 30 Mar 1833, election to the office of President of the Mexican United States is declared upon counting the votes of state legislatures (cast 1 Mar 1833), session of the Cámara de Diputados (Chamber of Deputies), Mexico City [1]
  1 Apr 1833, commencement of term in accordance with Art. 95 of the Constitution of 1824
  16 May 1833, took an oath of office, session of the Congreso General, salon de la Cámara de Diputados, Mexico City [2]
  22 Apr 1836, ceased to exercise the functions of office upon capture by a belligerent force, near San Jacinto, Texas [3]
  1 Apr 1837, expiration of term [4]
Title: Presidente Interino de la República Mexicana (Interim President of the Mexican Republic)
Term: 18 Mar 1839 - 10 Jul 1839
Chronology: 23 Jan 1839, assigned the duties of the President of the Mexican Republic during the absence of the incumbent and incapacity of the President of the Council of Government, resolution of the Supreme Conservative Power (Supremo Poder Conservador) signed 23 Jan 1839, Mexico City, and promulgated on the same day [5]
  18 Mar 1839, took an oath of office (by proxy), session of the Congreso General, salon de la Cámara de Diputados, Mexico City [6]
  10 Jul 1839, ceased to exercise the functions of office upon the installation of a successor [7]
Title: Presidente Provisional de la República Mexicana (Provisional President of the Mexican Republic)
Term: 10 Oct 1841 - 1 Feb 1844
Chronology: 9 Oct 1841, elected, session of the Junta de las representantes suplentes de los Departamentos, Mexico City [8]
  10 Oct 1841, took an oath of office, session of the Junta de las representantes suplentes de los Departamentos, Mexico City [9]
Title: Presidente Constitucional de la República Mexicana (Constitutional President of the Mexican Republic)
Term: 1 Feb 1844 - 21 May 1845
Chronology: 2 Jan 1844, election to the office of Constitutional President of the Mexican Republic is declared upon counting the votes of the departmental assemblies (cast 1 Nov 1843), session of the Congreso General, Mexico City [10]
  1 Feb 1844, commencement of term in accordance with Art. 165 of the Organic Bases of the Mexican Republic of 1843
  4 Jun 1844, took an oath of office, session of the Congreso General, Mexico City [11]
  17 Dec 1844, recognition as holder of the office of Constitutional President of the Mexican Republic is withdrawn, decree of the Congreso General [12]
  15 Jan 1845, ceased to exercise the functions of office upon capture by a belligerent force, near Xico, Veracruz [13]
  21 May 1845, instrument of resignation is signed, San Carlos Fortress, Perote, Veracruz [14][15]
Title: Presidente Interino de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos (Interim President of the Mexican United States)
Term: 24 Dec 1846 - 16 Sep 1847
Chronology: 23 Dec 1846, elected to the office of Interim President of the Mexican United States, session of the Congreso Constituyente, Mexico City [16]
  24 Dec 1846, duties of the office of Interim President of the Mexican United States devolve on the Interim Vice President of the Mexican United States due to the absence of the incumbent [17]
  22 Mar 1847, took an oath of office, private ceremony, Villa de Guadalupe Hidalgo [18][19]
  16 Sep 1847, resignation and appointment of a succeeding authority are proclaimed, decree of 16 Sep 1847, signed at Villa de Guadalupe Hidalgo [20][21]
Title: Presidente de la República Mexicana (President of the Mexican Republic)
Term: 20 Apr 1853 - 12 Aug 1855
Chronology: 17 Mar 1853, election to the office of President of the Mexican Republic is declared upon counting the votes of the states and territories (cast after 6 Feb 1853), public ceremony, salon de la Cámara de Diputados, Mexico City [22]
  20 Apr 1853, took an oath of office, public ceremony, salon de la Cámara de Diputados, Mexico City [23]
  12 Aug 1855, resignation proclaimed, manifesto of 12 Aug 1855, signed at Perote, Veracruz [24]
Biography:
Born into a middle-class creole family; attended local school in Veracruz; joined the Spanish army as a cadet at the age of sixteen (1810); was promoted to lieutenant (1812), sub-lieutenant (1812), royal lieutenant (1815), brevet captain (1816), lieutenant of grenadiers (1820), lieutenant colonel (1821); pronounced for the Plan de Iguala and defected to the Army of the Three Guarantees (1821), receiving promotion to colonel (rank confirmed in 1822); served as supreme political and military head of the Province of Veracruz (1822); was named brigadier general (1822); initiated a revolt in Veracruz, calling for the imposition of a republic (1822) and contributing to the downfall of the Empire; unsuccessfully attempted to launch a rebellion in San Luis Potosí in favour of federalism (1823); was placed on trial in Mexico City, but eventually pardoned (1824); appointed military commander of Yucatán (1824-1825); elected interim governor of the State of Yucatán (1824-1825); appointed vice-governor of the State of Veracruz (1827-1828); exercised the functions of governor during the periods of absence of Miguel Barragán; relieved of the office of vice-governor by the Congreso of Veracruz (5 Sep 1828); headed a revolt against the election of Manuel Gómez Pedraza (16 Sep 1828), declaring in favour of General Vicente Guerrero; elected constitutional governor of Veracruz (1829-1830); gained much prestige when he fought against Spain's attempt to reconquer Mexico (1829); promoted to divisional general (1829); refused to recognise the provisional government (Supremo Poder Ejecutivo Provisional) established in Mexico City 23 Dec 1829; resigned the office of governor of Veracruz (resignation accepted 18 Jan 1830); revolted against Anastasio Bustamante forcing him eventually to recognise Gómez Pedraza as the legitimate president (Zabaleta accords, signed 23 Dec 1832); elected President of the Mexican United States in 1833; pleaded illness before inauguration and withdrew to his country place, leaving Vice President Valentín Gómez Farías in charge (1 Apr 1833 - 16 May 1833); arrived to the capital to assume the presidency (16 May 1833); left office several times to suppress the insurgencies (1833-1834); re-assumed the presidency (24 Apr 1834) and quickly foiled the reforms of liberal administration of Gómez Farías; dissolved the Congreso General (31 May 1834) and assumed dictatorial powers (Congress reconvened 4 Jan 1835); tendered his resignation to the Congress, but it was declined by resolutions of both chambers 26 Jan 1835; was granted leave of absence for health recovery and retired to his estate while Barragán (28 Jan 1835 - 1 Mar 1836) and José Justo Corro (27 Feb 1836 - 19 Apr 1837) served as interim presidents; took command of Mexican troops in the war against the separation of Texas; was defeated in the battle of San Jacinto (21 Apr 1836) and captured by the Texan troops (22 Apr 1836); signed two treaties with Texas, recognizing its independence (14 May 1836); freed from prison (26 Nov 1836) and allowed to travel to Washington, D.C., where he met President Andrew Jackson (20 Jan 1837); left the United States (31 Jan 1837); returned to Mexico, landing in Veracruz 20 Feb 1837, and retired to his estate; regained his popularity by valiant defence of Veracruz against the French fleet (1838-1839); named Interim President of the Republic by the Supreme Conservative Power (Supremo Poder Conservador) (23 Jan 1839) and served during the absence of President Bustamante (18 Mar 1839 - 10 Jul 1839); joined the Triangular Revolt initiated by generals Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga and Gabriel Valencia against Bustamante; called military and political leaders of Mexico for signing the Bases de Tacubaya (28 Sep 1841), which sanctioned his next presidency; entered Mexico City on 7 Oct 1841; was appointed Provisional President of the Republic (9 Oct 1841) by the Junta of Representatives of the Departments; retired to his estate, appointing Nicolás Bravo as substitute president (appointed 10 Oct 1842, served 26 Oct 1842 - 3 Mar 1843); promulgated the Organic Bases of the Mexican Republic (Bases Orgánicas, 12 Jun 1843) which consolidated a centralist republic; appointed Valentín Canalizo to serve as interim president (appointed 2 Oct 1843, served 4 Oct 1843 - 4 Jun 1844) and again retired to his hacienda; elected Constitutional President of the Republic for the term beginning on 1 Feb 1844, but did not take office on that date (Canalizo was elected interim president by the Senado 27 Jan 1844); arrived to Mexico City and assumed the presidency on 4 Jun 1844; obtained leave of absence for health treatment and was provisionally replaced by José Joaquín de Herrera (12 Sep 1844 - 21 Sep 1844) and Canalizo (21 Sep 1844 - 7 Dec 1844); raised military force to attack Mexico City where the government of Canalizo had been overthrown by the congressmen supported by the troops (6 Dec 1844); abandoned the struggle and was arrested (15 Jan 1845); amnestied on condition of resigning the office and leaving the country (24 May 1845); sailed for Havana, Cuba; recalled to lead the war effort against the United States; disembarked in Veracruz on 16 Aug 1846; appointed commander-in-chief; elected Interim President of the Mexican United States (23 Dec 1846), but remained with the army in the north, leaving Vice President Gómez Farías in charge; attacked the American army under General Zachary Taylor near Angostura–Buena Vista (22-23 Feb 1847), but retreated with great losses; hearing of clashes between different political groups in the capital, he hastened to Mexico City and occupied the presidency on 22 Mar 1847; took command of the forces in Veracruz and left Pedro María Anaya in charge as substitute president (1 Apr 1847 - 19 May 1847); was totally defeated at Cerro Gordo on 18 Apr 1847; retreated to Mexico City (19 May 1847) to organize an army to defend the capital against the advancing American forces; abandoned the capital which was occupied by the American army (14 Sep 1847); resigned the presidency (16 Sep 1847); went into exile, first in Kingston, Jamaica (1848–1850) and later in Turbaco, Colombia (1850–1853); elected President of the Republic and again recalled to Mexico; installed in office (20 Apr 1853) with dictatorial powers; received from the Council of State the right to continue in office for as long as he deemed necessary, the power of nominating his successor, and the title of Su Alteza Serenísima (His Most Serene Highness) (16 Dec 1853); as his rule became increasingly repressive, it was challenged by the Plan de Ayutla (1 Mar 1854); manipulated a plebiscite for continuance of dictatorship (1 Dec 1854); despite a number of successful campaigns against the revolutionaries, he failed to defeat the movement and finally abandoned the capital (9 Aug 1855); resigned the presidency (12 Aug 1855) and went into exile; lived in Turbaco, Colombia, and subsequently in St. Thomas, Virgin Islands (1855-1864); returned to Veracruz expecting to participate in the Regency Council, but was ordered to leave Mexico by the imperial government (1864); returned to St. Thomas; offered his services to President Benito Juárez, but was it was not accepted; chartered a steamer and appeared before Veracruz (1867) but was prevented from landing; arrived to Yucatán and was arrested (1867); punished with eight years' exile by a court-martial (9 Oct 1867); spent six years in Havana, Puerto Plata, and Nassau (1867-1874); returned to Mexico in 1874.
Biographical sources: birth and baptismal record in Archivo de la Parroquia del Sagrario Metropolitano de la Arquidiocesis de Jalapa, Jalapa Enríquez, Bautismos 1792-1802, fol. 10; "Santa Anna of Mexico", by Will Fowler (Lincoln and London: University of Nebraska Press, 2007); "Causa criminal instruída al Exmo. Sr. Presidente Constitucional general de división D. Antonio López de Santa-Anna, acusado del delito de traición contra la forma de gobierno establecida en las bases orgánicas" (Mexico City: Imprenta de Lara, 1846) (web site); obituary: El Siglo Diez y Nueve, No. 11,381, 21 Jun 1876, p. 3.
Elections:

Candidate Votes of States (1 Mar 1833)
Antonio de Padua María Severino López de Santa Anna y Pérez de Lebrón 16
José María Valentín Gómez de la Vara y Martínez Farías 11
José Trinidad Salgado 3
José Ventura Melchor Ciriaco de Eca y Múzquiz de Arrieta 1
Francisco García 1
Nicolás Bravo Rueda 1
José Rincon 1
Ignacio Alas 1
Juan Pablo Anaya 1

Candidate Votes (9 Oct 1841)
Antonio de Padua María Severino López de Santa Anna y Pérez de Lebrón 39
Gabriel Valencia 2
Manuel Gómez Pedraza y Rodríguez 1
José María de Tornel y Mendívil 1

Candidate Votes of Departments (1 Nov 1843) *
Antonio de Padua María Severino López de Santa Anna y Pérez de Lebrón 19
José Ventura Melchor Ciriaco de Eca y Múzquiz de Arrieta 1
Francisco Elorriaga 1

Candidate Votes of States (23 Dec 1846)
Antonio de Padua María Severino López de Santa Anna y Pérez de Lebrón 11
Francisco Elorriaga 9

Candidate Votes of States (7 Feb 1853 - 16 Mar 1853)
Antonio de Padua María Severino López de Santa Anna y Pérez de Lebrón 17 (+1) **
Jose López Uraga 3
Juan Bautista Loreto Mucio Francisco José de Asís de la Santísima Trinidad Ceballos Gómez Sañudo 1
Ángel Trías Álvarez 1
* The minutes of the session of 2 Jan 1844 did not mention other candidates and the number of votes. The figures were reported later according to the "press reports" (Diario del Gobierno, No. 3126, 13 Jan 1844, p. 51)
** The vote of the State of Puebla was cast for the candidate who would acquire majority of votes and was eventually awarded to Santa Anna by the canvassing officers on 17 Mar 1853.
Source of electoral results: El Telégrafo, No. 82, 2 Apr 1833, p. 1; Historia parlamentaria, 8:271-273; Diario del Gobierno, No. 2305, 14 Oct 1841, p. 25; Diario del Gobierno, No. 3126, 13 Jan 1844, p. 51; Diario del Gobierno, No. 148, 1 Jan 1847, p. 1; El Siglo Diez y Nueve, No. 1541, 19 Mar 1853, pp. 3-4.

[1] El Telégrafo, No. 82, 2 Apr 1833, p. 1; Historia parlamentaria, 8:271-273.
[2] El Telégrafo, No. 15, 25 May 1833, p. 1; Historia parlamentaria, 8:373.
[3] Henson, 189-230; Filisola, 1:217-218.
[4] Santa Anna was elected for the period ending 1 Apr 1837 in accordance with Art. 95 of the Constitution of 1824 and this date could be notionally accepted as the end of his term. The introduction of the Constitutional Laws of 1836 did not affect the terms of Santa Anna and his substitute, José Justo Corro, who stayed in office to 19 Apr 1837. Santa Anna was captured by the Texan troops (22 Apr 1836) and de facto ceased to exercise the functions of office, although he signed the treaties of Velasco (14 May 1836) while remaining a prisoner. He was officially named a prisoner of war and still acknowledged as president of the Republic in a decree of 20 May 1836 issued by the Corro administration. Following the investigation into the actions of Santa Anna during his imprisonment and negotiations with the Texan government, the Congreso General passed a resolution (22 Feb 1837) including a clause retroactively putting an end to his term on the date of publication of Bases y leyes constitucionales de la República Mexicana (30 Dec 1836), but Corro refused to promulgate it as a decree (El Mosquito Mexicano, Nos. 91 and 93, 17 and 24 Feb 1837; Riva Palacio, 4:388-389). When Santa Anna returned to Mexico in 1837, the ministry of finance was confused whether he was owed the salary of President of the Republic or that of a divisional general. He "did eventually get his salary as general reinstated but was not given any back pay for his time in captivity." (Fowler, op. cit., 185-186)
[5] Arrillaga, 1839, 8-9.
[6] Lima de Vulcano, No. 119, 20 Mar 1839, p. 3. According to a decree promulgated 16 Mar 1839, Santa Anna was authorised to take an oath of office by signing an affidavit in the presence of four secretaries of state who submitted this document to the session of the Congreso General on 18 Mar 1839, accomplishing the process by certification. See Arrillaga, 1839, 70.
[7] Diario del Gobierno, No. 1,545, 23 Jul 1839, p. 513.
[8] Diario del Gobierno, No. 2305, 14 Oct 1841, p. 25.
[9] Diario del Gobierno, No. 2306, 15 Oct 1841, p. 29.
[10] Diario del Gobierno, No. 3122, 9 Jan 1844, p. 33.
[11] El Siglo Diez y Nueve, No. 935, 17 Jun 1844, p. 1; Historia parlamentaria, 17:12.
[12] El Siglo Diez y Nueve, No. 1118, 19 Dec 1844, p. 1.
[13] El Siglo Diez y Nueve, No. 1147, 18 Jan 1845, p. 4; Causa criminal, op. cit., 5-6.
[14] El Siglo Diez y Nueve, No. 1275, 27 May 1845, p. 4; Causa criminal, op. cit., 240.
[15] Cámara de Diputados approved a resolution on amnesty (20 May 1845), but Santa Anna was excluded from the amnesty unless he agrees to leave the national territory for all time, in which case his resignation from the office of president of the republic would be accepted. Being convinced that the Cámara de Senadores would agree to pass the bill, Santa Anna signed an instrument of resignation on 21 May 1845 in San Carlos Fortress, Perote. Senado approved the bill on 23 May 1845 and it was signed into the law 24 May 1845.
[16] Diario del Gobierno, No. 148, 1 Jan 1847, p. 1.
[17] Diario del Gobierno, No. 142, 26 Dec 1846, p. 2.
[18] Diario del Gobierno, No. 21, 2 Apr 1847, p. 1; Diario del Gobierno, No. 11, 23 Mar 1847, p. 4.
[19] According to an official act submitted to the session of Congreso Constituyente on 24 Mar 1847, the ceremony of swearing-in took place at 01:00 22 Mar 1847 ("á la una de la mañana del dia 22 de Marzo de 1847") in Villa de Guadalupe Hidalgo in the presence of a committee composed of the deputies appointed by the Congreso.
[20] El Monitor Republicano, No. 869, 27 Sep 1847, pp. 2-3.
[21] Announced his resignation and creation of a triumvirate to succeed him, referring to Art. 97 of the Constitution of 1824, but deliberately violating its provisions by appointing two members of this body instead of their election by the Consejo de Gobierno. The triumvirate did not take office and the president of the Supreme Court of Justice, Manuel de la Peña y Peña, assumed the functions of chief executive (22 Sep 1847) in accordance with Art. 98. Santa Anna attempted to retract his resignation in a message to the Congreso (1 Nov 1847), claiming that it was not effective as it had not been accepted. A response issued by minister of internal and external relations (11 Nov 1847) informed him that the current supreme authority is fully constitutional and refuted the claim (El Monitor Republicano, No. 917, 14 Nov 1847, pp. 3-4).
[22] El Siglo Diez y Nueve, No. 1541, 19 Mar 1853, pp. 3-4.
[23] El Universal, No. 370, 21 Apr 1853, p. 3; El Siglo Diez y Nueve, No. 1572, 20 Apr 1853, p. 4.
[24] El Siglo Diez y Nueve, No. 2426, 19 Aug 1855, pp. 2-3.
Last updated on: 15 Feb 2015 13:53:05