Gómez Farías, Valentín

José María Valentín Gómez de la Vara y Martínez Farías

b. 14 Feb 1781, Guadalajara, Jalisco
d. 5 Jul 1858, Mexico City

Title: Vicepresidente de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos, en ejercicio del Supremo Poder Ejecutivo (Vice President of the Mexican United States exercising the Supreme Executive Power)
Term: 1 Apr 1833 - 16 May 1833
Chronology: 30 Mar 1833, election to the office of Vice President of the Mexican United States is declared upon counting the votes of state legislatures (cast 1 Mar 1833), session of the Cámara de Diputados (Chamber of Deputies), Mexico City [1]
  1 Apr 1833, commencement of term in accordance with Art. 95 of the Constitutioin of 1824
  1 Apr 1833, took an oath of office, session of the Congreso General, Mexico City; entered upon the duties of the office of President of the Mexican United States due to the absence of the incumbent [2]
  16 May 1833, ceased to exercise the functions of President of the Mexican United States upon the installation of the incumbent [3]
Title: Vicepresidente interino de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos, en ejercicio del Supremo Poder Ejecutivo (Interim Vice President of the Mexican United States exercising the Supreme Executive Power)
Term: 24 Dec 1846 - 22 Mar 1847
Chronology: 23 Dec 1846, elected to the office of Interim Vice President of the Mexican United States, session of the Congreso Constituyente, Mexico City [4]
  24 Dec 1846, took an oath of office, session of the Congreso Constituyente, Mexico City; entered upon the duties of the office of Interim President of the Mexican United States due to the absence of the incumbent [4][5]
  22 Mar 1847, ceased to exercise the functions of Interim President of the Mexican United States upon the installation of the incumbent [6]
  1 Apr 1847, ceased to exercise the functions of Interim Vice President of the Mexican United States upon the promulgation of a decree abolishing the office (resolution of the Congreso Constituyente passed 31 Mar 1847, promulgated as a decree 1 Apr 1847) [7]
Biography:
Son of a merchant; studied medicine in the University of Guadalajara, receiving his bachelor's degree in 1806 or 1807; moved to Mexico City (1808) and then to Aguascalientes (1810); served as a member (regidor) of the city council of Aguascalientes (1820-1822); was elected to the Cortes of the Spanish monarchy as a deputy for the Province of Zacatecas for the term beginning in 1822; influenced by French liberal political ideas, he joined the cause of independence and was a leader of the revolutionaries in Aguascalientes; proclaimed independence from the balcony of the house of provincial government (6 Jul 1821); was made first councillor of the city council (1821); elected a member of the first Congreso Constituyente of Mexico (1822-1823), representing the province of Zacatecas; on behalf of 46 deputies, he offered imperial crown to Agustín de Iturbide on 19 May 1822; disillusioned with the emperor and constitutional monarchy, he became a supporter of federal republic; elected a representative of Zacatecas to the second Congreso Constituyente of Mexico (1823-1824); member of the Cámara de Senadores for the State of Jalisco (1824-1830); president of the Cámara de Senadores (28 Dec 1824 - 31 Jan 1825, 28 Dec 1826 - 31 Jan 1827, 3 Aug 1829 - 27 Aug 1829); supported Manuel Gómez Pedraza in the presidential election of 1828 and received one vote of the state legislature of Jalisco cast for himself; presided during the sessions of the Senado which approved extraordinary powers for President Vicente Guerrero (1829); declined the appointment as finance minister (1829); was elected a member of the Congreso of the State of Zacatecas (1831-1833); elected vice-governor of Zacatecas (1832-1833); served as finance minister in the administration of Gómez Pedraza (1833); as a runner-up of the presidential election in 1833, he assumed the office of Vice-President of the Mexican United States (1 Apr 1833 - 27 Jan 1835); exercised the functions of President during the absences of Antonio López de Santa Anna caused by his participation in military actions against insurgents and illness (1 Apr 1833 - 16 May 1833, 2 Jun 1833 - 17 Jun 1833, 5 Jul 1833 - 27 Oct 1833, 15 Dec 1833 - 24 Apr 1834); introduced an aggressive programme of liberal reforms aimed at eradicating colonial vestiges; returned the presidency to López de Santa Anna (24 Apr 1834) who returned from sick leave and quickly foiled the reforms of liberal administration; perceived as a threat to the power of the church and army, he faced a vilification campaign in the press directed by the conservatives; after declarations that the nation "withdrew its recognition" of the Vice-President, he was deprived of his office by resolution of the Congreso General (approved by Cámara de Senadores 22 Jan 1835, Cámara de Diputados 26 Jan 1835, promulgated 27 Jan 1835); allowed to move to the United States (1835) and lived in New Orleans (1835-1838); returned to Mexico (11 Feb 1838) and met with President Anastasio Bustamante and his cabinet; estranged by the politics of Bustamante, he was arrested and imprisoned (7 Sep 1838) for his role in a conspiracy aimed at re-establishing federalism; released by the mob invading the Convent of San Domingo where he was detained (14 Dec 1838); went into hiding in Mexico City (1838-1840); participated in a revolt of José Urrea who led a rebel infantry battalion which stormed the National Palace in Mexico City and captured Bustamante (15 Jul 1840); besieged in the National Palace, he assumed the functions of provisional head of the Mexican federal government (16? Jul 1840 - 26 Jul 1840); surrendered 26 Jul 1840 and was placed under house arrest in Mexico City; allowed to depart for the United States and moved to New York by the end of 1840; arrived to Yucatán and worked to support the sovereignty of this state (1841-1843); after the invasion of the Mexican army, he returned to the United States and again resided in New Orleans (1843-1845); returned to Mexico in early 1845; elected a member of the Cámara de Senadores in by-election of 1845, but was not permitted to take oath as senator on suspicion of implication in the revolt of 7 Jun 1845; arrested in May 1846, he was acquitted by a congressional grand jury (13 Jul 1846); welcomed the revolution led by José Mariano de Salas and was appointed finance minister (1846); served as president of the Consejo de Gobierno (Council of Government) appointed by Salas 20 Sep 1846; entered into alliance with López de Santa Anna and met him in person upon his triumphal entrance into Mexico City (14 Sep 1846); was elected a member of the Congreso Constituyente (1846-1847), representing the State of Jalisco; served as president of the Congreso Constituyente (30 Nov 1846 - 5 Dec 1846); elected Vice-President of the Mexican United States by the Congreso (23 Dec 1846) and took office 24 Dec 1846; exercised the functions of head of state to 22 Mar 1847 during the absence of President Santa Anna; relieved of the duties of Vice-President when the Congreso abolished the office (1 Apr 1847); member of the Cámara de Senadores, representing the State of Sinaloa (1849-1852); president of the Cámara de Senadores (1 Aug 1851 - 30 Aug 1851); was appointed a representative for Zacatecas to the Junta de Representantes and served as its president (4 Oct 1855); elected by three states to the Congreso Constituyente (1856-1857) where he represented the State of Jalisco; president of the Congreso Constituyente (30 Jun 1856 - 31 Jul 1856, 31 Jan 1857 - 17 Feb 1857).
Biographical sources: birth and baptismal record in Archivo de la Parroquia del Sagrario Metropolitano, Guadalajara, Jalisco, Bautismos 1780-1786, fol. 38; "Valentín Gómez Farías: La vida de un Republicano", by Cecil Alan Hutchinson (Guadalajara: Unidad Editorial, 1983) (web site); obituaries: El Siglo Diez y Nueve, No. 3,551, 5 Jul 1858, p. 2.
Elections:

Candidate Votes of States (1 Mar 1833)
Antonio de Padua María Severino López de Santa Anna y Pérez de Lebrón 16
José María Valentín Gómez de la Vara y Martínez Farías 11
José Trinidad Salgado 3
José Ventura Melchor Ciriaco de Eca y Múzquiz de Arrieta 1
Francisco García 1
Nicolás Bravo Rueda 1
José Rincon 1
Ignacio Alas 1
Juan Pablo Anaya 1

Candidate Votes of States (23 Dec 1846)
José María Valentín Gómez de la Vara y Martínez Farías 11
Melchor Ocampo 8
Francisco Elorriaga 1
Source of electoral results: El Telégrafo, No. 82, 2 Apr 1833, p. 1; Historia parlamentaria, 8:271-273; Diario del Gobierno, No. 148, 1 Jan 1847, p. 1.

[1] El Telégrafo, No. 82, 2 Apr 1833, p. 1; Historia parlamentaria, 8:271-273.
[2] El Telégrafo, No. 84, 4 Apr 1833, p. 1; Historia parlamentaria, 8:273.
[3] El Telégrafo, No. 15, 25 May 1833, p. 1; Historia parlamentaria, 8:373.
[4] Diario del Gobierno, No. 148, 1 Jan 1847, pp. 1-2.
[5] Diario del Gobierno, No. 142, 26 Dec 1846, p. 2.
[6] Diario del Gobierno, No. 21, 2 Apr 1847, p. 1; Diario del Gobierno, No. 11, 23 Mar 1847, p. 4.
[7] Diario del Gobierno, No. 21, 2 Apr 1847, p. 1; Diario del Gobierno, No. 31, 12 Apr 1847, p. 1.
Last updated on: 30 Nov 2014 02:16:57