Anaya, Pedro María

Pedro María Anaya y de Álvarez

b. 20 May 1794, Huichapan [now in Hidalgo]
d. 22 Mar 1854, Mexico City

Title: Presidente Sustituto de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos (Substitute President of the Mexican United States) [1]
Term: 1 Apr 1847 - 19 May 1847
Chronology: 1 Apr 1847, elected, session of the Congreso Constituyente, Mexico City [2]
  1 Apr 1847, took an oath of office, session of the Congreso Constituyente, Mexico City [2][3]
  19 May 1847, ceased to exercise the functions of office upon the resumption of duties by the incumbent [4]
Title: Presidente Interino de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos (Interim President of the Mexican United States)
Term: 12 Nov 1847 - 8 Jan 1848
Chronology: 11 Nov 1847, elected, session of the Cámara de Diputados (Chamber of Deputies), Querétaro [5]
  12 Nov 1847, took an oath of office, session of the Congreso General, Querétaro [6]
  8 Jan 1848, expiration of term in accordance with Art. 2 of the Law of 9 Nov 1847 [7]
Names/titles: Baptised (21 May 1794): Pedro Bernardino Anaya y de Álvarez
Biography:
After receiving primary education, he studied philosophy and theology to begin a clerical career; during the Mexican war of independence, he joined the royalist army and became a cadet in the regiment of Tres Villas (1811); defected to the Army of the Three Guarantees and entered Mexico City with the insurgent troops in 1821; participated in the military campaign in Guatemala (1822-1823), resulting in annexation of this province by the Mexican Empire; named commander of a squadron (1823); promoted to lieutenant colonel (1828); elected to the Cámara de Diputados as a deputy from the State of Mexico (1828-1830); distinguished himself on the battle-field while fighting against the Spanish invasion along with Antonio López de Santa Anna (1829); brevetted colonel (1829); served as president of the Cámara de Diputados (3 Aug 1829 - 27 Aug 1829) during a session which approved extraordinary powers for President Vicente Guerrero; was appointed commandant-general of Mexico City (1829) and took a leave of absence from the Congreso; headed the defence of the National Palace against the insurgents (23 Dec 1829), but was unable to prevent the downfall of provisional government of José María Bocanegra; resumed his seat in the Congreso in 1830; elected president of the Cámara de Diputados (30 Oct 1830 - 30 Nov 1830); granted leave of absence from the army (1831) for health treatment; re-admitted to military service in 1832; elected to the Cámara de Diputados as a deputy from the State of Mexico (1833-1834); was confirmed in the rank of colonel (1833) and given the command of garrison of the National Palace; brevetted brigadier general (1833); retired from military service and was appointed postmaster general (1833-1834); removed from office by the liberal government of Valentín Gómez Farías and was barred from holding offices during the centralist republic; lived almost in poverty until he was awarded pension as a colonel (1841); was made head of the Batallón de Inválidos (1843-1844); appointed a member of the Cámara de Senadores (1844-1845) and served as its president (28 Dec 1844 - 31 Jan 1845); briefly held the office of minister of war and marine (1845) in the cabinet of José Joaquín de Herrera; resumed the duties of head of the Batallón de Inválidos (1846); elected a member of the Congreso Constituyente (1846-1847), representing the State of Mexico; president of the Congreso (31 Dec 1846 - 30 Jan 1847); elected Substitute President of the Mexican United States (1 Apr 1847 - 19 May 1847) to fill in for President López de Santa Anna; earned nationwide recognition for his bravery as one of the commanders in the Battle of Churubusco (20 Aug 1847) lost by the Mexican army during the war with the United States; captured by the U.S. troops, but was released shortly after; elected Interim President of the Mexican United States (12 Nov 1847 - 8 Jan 1848); held the portfolio of minister of war and marine in provisional administration of Manuel de la Peña y Peña during the last stage of the Mexican-American War; returned to serve as postmaster general (1848-1849); served as governor of the Federal District (10 Jul 1849 - 31 Dec 1849); resigned because of poor health and again assumed the post of postmaster general (1850-1852); elected to the municipal council of Mexico City (1851); promoted to director general of posts (1852-1854) and simultaneously appointed minister of war and marine (1852-1853) in the administration of Mariano Arista.
Biographical sources: birth and baptismal record in Archivo de la Parroquia de San Mateo, Huichapan, Bautismos (web site); death and burial record in Distrito Federal, Asunción Sagrario Metropolitano (Centro), Defunciones 1854-1863, #275, fol. 17; obituary: El Siglo Diez y Nueve, No. 1,913, 22 Mar 1854, p. 4; "¡Si hubiera parque...! P.M. Anaya", ed. by Guadalupe Rivera Marín (Hidalgo: Gobierno del Estado de Hidalgo; Delegación Benito Juárez, México, D.F. : Instituto Nacional de Estudios Históricos de la Revolución Mexicana, 1993).
Elections:

Candidate Votes of States (1 Apr 1847)
Pedro María Anaya y de Álvarez 18
Juan Nepomuceno Almonte 3

Candidate 1st vote of States (11 Nov 1847) 2nd vote of States (11 Nov 1847)
Pedro María Anaya y de Álvarez 7 10
Juan Nepomuceno Cumplido 7 7
Manuel Gómez Pedraza y Rodríguez 2 -
Domingo Ibarra 1 -
Source of electoral results: Diario del Gobierno, No. 31, 12 Apr 1847, pp. 1-2; El Monitor Republicano, No. 917, 14 Nov 1847, p. 4.

[1] Also in official use: Presidente Sustituto de la República Mexicana.
[2] Diario del Gobierno, No. 31, 12 Apr 1847, pp. 1-2.
[3] Took oath of office at the session of the Congreso at 23:30 1 Apr 1847. The ceremony of transfer of executive authority was held at 13:00 2 Apr 1847 (El Monitor Republicano, No. 767, 2 Apr 1847, p. 4; Diario del Gobierno, No. 21, 2 Apr 1847, pp. 3-4)
[4] El Monitor Republicano, No. 815, 20 May 1847, p. 4; El Monitor Republicano, No. 817, 22 May 1847, p. 4.
[5] El Monitor Republicano, No. 917, 14 Nov 1847, p. 4; El Monitor Republicano, No. 921, 18 Nov 1847, p. 1.
[6] El Monitor Republicano, No. 921, 18 Nov 1847, p. 1.
[7] Colección de leyes y decretos 1847, 214-215.
Last updated on: 15 Feb 2015 10:03:24