Gronchi, Giovanni

Giovanni Gronchi

b. 10 Sep 1887, Pontedera
d. 17 Oct 1978, Rome

Title: Presidente della Repubblica (President of the Republic)
Term: 11 May 1955 - 11 May 1962
Chronology: 29 Apr 1955, elected, joint session of the Parliament (Parlamento), Palazzo Montecitorio, Rome [1]
11 May 1955, took the oath prescribed by law, joint session of the Parliament, Palazzo Montecitorio, Rome [2]
11 May 1962, expiration of term
Biography:
Born in the family of a shop assistant; joined Romolo Murri's Christian Movement in 1902; graduated in literature and philosophy at the Scuola Normale Superiore in Pisa (1909); worked as a schoolteacher in Parma, Massa di Carrara, Bergamo, and Monza (1911-1915); participated in World War I as a volunteer; joined the Italian Popular Party (Partito Popolare Italiano, PPI) in 1919; represented Pisa as a member of the Camera dei Deputati (Chamber of Deputies, 1919-1924); served as Secretary of the Christian Workers' Confederation (Confederazione dei Lavoratori Cristiani, 1920-1922); was appointed under-secretary of state for industry and commerce in the government of Benito Mussolini (31 Oct 1922 - 26 Apr 1923); assumed the leadership of PPI together with Giuseppe Spataro and Giulio Rodinò after the resignation of Luigi Sturzo (1924); became a leader in the "Aventine secession" (1924), which opposed the Fascist government and formed an opposition rump parliament; after the suppression of PPI (1926), he lost his teaching job and became a small businessman; during World World War II he was a member of the National Liberation Committee (Comitato di Liberazione Nazionale) and drafted the program of the Christian Democratic Party (Democrazia Cristiana, DC) in collaboration with with Stefano Jacini, Alcide De Gasperi, and Giuseppe Spataro; advocated trade union solidarity ("Pact of Rome") in 1944-1948; chaired the Committee for Trade Union Coordination; held the office of minister of industry and commerce (1945-1946) in the government of De Gasperi; was elected to the Constituent Assembly (Assemblea Costituente) on the Christian Democratic ticket by the votes of the 16th constituency in Pisa (1946-1948); became the leader of the Christian Democrat Parliamentary group; elected to the Chamber of Deputies (1948-1955) and served as President of the Chamber (8 May 1948 - 10 May 1955); in a hotly contested election, he was elected President of the Republic (29 Apr 1955); resigned his seat in the Chamber and the office of its president in a letter dated 2 May 1955 (communicated to the Chamber 10 May 1955); before completing his term as President of the Republic (11 May 1955 - 11 May 1962), he attempted to secure re-election but withdrew after eight ballots (5 May 1962); became a Senator (11 May 1962) as a member of the Mixed group.
Biographical sources: "Giovanni Gronchi: una democrazia più vera", by Gianfranco Merli (Roma: Edizioni Studium, 1993).
Elections:

Candidate 1st ballot 2nd ballot 3rd ballot 4th ballot
  28 Apr 1955 28 Apr 1955 28 Apr 1955 29 Apr 1955
voters present 815 808 817 833
abstained - - - -
voted 815 808 817 833
majority * 562 562 562 422
Ferruccio Parri 308 - - -
Cesare Merzagora 228 225 245 -
Luigi Einaudi 120 80 61 70
Giovanni Gronchi 30 127 281 658
Antonio Segni 12 18 14 -
Raffaele De Caro - - 12 -
scattered 23 24 7 11
blank 89 332 195 92
invalid 5 2 2 2
* Art. 83 (3) of the Constitution of 1947 requires a two-thirds majority of all the members of the chambers for election in the first three ballots, and a simple majority of all the members for all subsequent ballots.
Source of electoral results: Camera dei Deputati - Senato della Repubblica, Legislatura II, Discussioni, Seduta Comune di Giovedì 28 Aprile 1955, pp. 1-10; Camera dei Deputati - Senato della Repubblica, Legislatura II, Discussioni, Seduta Comune di Venerdì 29 Aprile 1955, pp. 11-14.

[1] Camera dei Deputati - Senato della Repubblica, Legislatura II, Discussioni, Seduta Comune di Venerdì 29 Aprile 1955, pp. 11-14.
[2] Camera dei Deputati - Senato della Repubblica, Legislatura II, Discussioni, Seduta Comune di Mercoledì 11 Maggio 1955, pp. 1-5.
Last updated on: 04 Dec 2010 03:10:38