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De Nicola, Enrico

Enrico De Nicola

b. 9 Nov 1877, Naples
d. 1 Oct 1959, Torre del Greco

Title: Capo provvisorio dello Stato (Provisional Head of State)
Term: 1 Jul 1946 - 1 Jan 1948
Chronology: 28 Jun 1946, elected, session of the Constituent Assembly (Assemblea Costituente), Palazzo Montecitorio, Rome [1]
1 Jul 1946, installed in office, public ceremony, Palazzo Montecitorio, Rome [2]
25 Jun 1947, letter of resignation (dated 25 Jul 1947, Rome) communicated to the Constituent Assembly, acknowledged, session of the Constituent Assembly (Assemblea Costituente), Palazzo Montecitorio, Rome [3]
26 Jun 1947, elected, session of the Constituent Assembly (Assemblea Costituente), Palazzo Montecitorio, Rome [4]
Title: Presidente della Repubblica (President of the Republic)
Term: 1 Jan 1948 - 12 May 1948
Chronology: 1 Jan 1948, assumed the office of President of the Republic in accordance with Part I of the Transitory and Final Provisions of the Constitution of 1947 [5]
  12 May 1948, ceased to exercise the functions of office upon the installation of a successor
Biography:
Studied law in the University of Naples, graduating in 1896; earned professional reputation as one of the best penal lawyers; municipal councilor of Naples (1907); elected to the Chamber of Deputies, representing Afragola (1909-1919) and Naples (1919-1924); held the offices of undersecretary of state for colonies (27 Nov 1913 - 23 Mar 1914) and undersecretary of state for treasury (19 Jan 1919 - 23 Jun 1919) in the governments of Giovanni Giolitti and Vittorio Emanuele Orlando; chaired the Commission for the Reform of the Civil Service (1919); served as President of the Chamber of Deputies (26 Jun 1920 - 7 Apr 1921, 13 Jun 1921 - 10 Dec 1923); was responsible for the conclusion of a peace pact (3 Aug 1921) between the Fascists and the Socialists; was elected to the Chamber of Deputies in 1924 on the National Ticket (Lista Nazionale), including fascists and liberals, but refused to take his seat as deputy; distanced himself from the Fascist regime; was appointed senator (1929-1946), but rarely participated in the work of the Senate and dedicated himself to law practice; after the fall of Benito Mussolini, he was called to mediate between the Allies and the Italian Crown for a smoother transition of power; drafted a political plan ("institutional truce") involving the transition of executive authority from King Vittorio Emanuele III to his son, Umberto di Savoia, acting as Lieutenant-General of the Realm; was elected Provisional Head of State (1 Jul 1946 - 1 Jan 1948) by the Constituent Assembly after the proclamation of the republic; submitted his resignation (25 Jun 1947) for alleged health reasons, but was almost immediately re-elected to the office (26 Jun 1947); assumed the office of President of the Republic in accordance with Constitutional provisions (1 Jan 1948); was an unsuccessful candidate at the presidential elections by the Parlamento (10-11 May 1948); as a former Head of State, he became a senator after the expiration of his term of office (12 May 1948); served as President of the Senate (28 Apr 1951 - 24 Jun 1952); was suspended from his functions as senator on his being appointed as a Constitutional Court judge (1955-1957); served as President of the Constitutional Court (1956-1957).
Biographical sources: "Enrico De Nicola. Il Presidente galantuomo", by Andrea Jelardi (Naples: Kairòs, 2009).
Elections:

Candidate Vote (28 Jun 1946)
votes cast 501
majority * 323
Enrico De Nicola 396
Cipriano Facchinetti 40
Ottavia Penna Buscemi 32
Vittorio Emanuele Orlando 12
Carlo Sforza 2
Alcide De Gasperi 1
Alfredo Proia 1
blank 12
invalid 5

Candidate Vote (26 Jun 1947)
votes cast 431
majority * 334
Enrico De Nicola 405
scattered 6
blank 19
invalid 1
* 3/5 of all members of the Constituent Assembly
Source of electoral results: Assemblea Costituente, III, Seduta di venerdì 28 giugno 1946, pp. 19-20; Assemblea Costituente, CLXIII, Seduta di giovedì 26 giugno 1947, p. 5195.

[1] Assemblea Costituente, III, Seduta di venerdì 28 giugno 1946, pp. 19-20.
[2] Gazzetta Ufficiale della Repubblica Italiana, Edizione Straordinaria, Anno 87° - Numero 144, Parte Prima, Roma - Lunedì, 1° luglio 1946.
[3] Assemblea Costituente, CLXII, Seduta di mercoledì 25 giugno 1947, pp. 5191-5192.
[4] Assemblea Costituente, CLXIII, Seduta di giovedì 26 giugno 1947, pp. 5193-5195.
[5] Gazzetta Ufficiale della Repubblica Italiana, Anno 88° - Numero 298, Parte Prima, Roma - Sabato, 27 dicembre 1947.

This page was last updated on: 04 Dec 2010 03:01:25

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