Marx, Wilhelm

Wilhelm Marx

b. 15 Jan 1863, Cologne, Kingdom of Prussia
d. 5 Aug 1946, Bonn, Germany

Title: Reichskanzler (Reich Chancellor)
Term: 30 Nov 1923 - 3 Jun 1924
Chronology: 30 Nov 1923, appointed by the Reichspräsident (Reich President)
2 Dec 1923, took an oath of office as Reich Chancellor, meeting of the Cabinet, Reichskanzlei, Berlin [1]
  26 May 1924, resignation submitted to the Reich President, accepted pending the appointment of a successor
Term: 3 Jun 1924 - 15 Jan 1925
Chronology: 3 Jun 1924, appointed by the Reichspräsident (Reich President)
  15 Dec 1924, resignation submitted to the Reich President, accepted pending the appointment of a successor [2]
Term: 17 May 1926 - 29 Jan 1927
Chronology: 17 May 1926, appointed by the Reichspräsident (Reich President)
  17 Dec 1926, resignation submitted to the Reich President, accepted pending the appointment of a successor
Term: 29 Jan 1927 - 28 Jun 1928
Chronology: 29 Jan 1927, appointed by the Reichspräsident (Reich President)
  12 Jun 1928, resignation submitted to the Reich President, accepted pending the appointment of a successor [3]
Biography:

Wilhelm Marx was educated as lawyer in Bonn and admitted to the Prussian justice service in 1888. Working as a judge in Elberfeld he got involved in political activities as a member of the Catholic Centre Party. In 1899-1918 he held a seat in the Prussian Diet. After his appointment to Cologne, he became deputy chairman of the Center party for Rhineland (1906-1919). In 1910-1918 Marx served as a deputy of the German Reichstag. He founded and chaired the Catholic Schools Organization (Düsseldorf, 1911) and became president of the People's Union for Catholic Germany after World War I. In 1919 Marx was elected to the National Constituent Assembly (Verfassunggebende Nationalversammlung) as well as to the Prussian Provincial Assembly. In 1921 Marx was elected president of the senate of the Court of Appeal and became his party leader in the Reichstag. Next year he assumed the post of national chairman of the Center. On 30 Nov 1923 Marx was appointed Reich Chancellor in the government formed of representatives of the Center, the People's Party (DVP), the Democratic Party (DDP) and non-party politicians. Before general elections took place on 4 May 1924, the government of Marx secured the acceptance of the Dawes Plan for reparations payments. After the elections Marx failed to agree on terms of inclusion of the National People's Party (DNVP) members into the government and resigned (26 May 1924). Reich President Friedrich Ebert again commissioned (3 Jun 1924) Marx to form a minority government, which composition remained the same as before. The lack of parliamentary support for the Marx's second government and demands for a broader coalition led to the dissolution of the Reichstag (20 Oct 1924). In December 1924 Marx resigned after the elections returned the majority for the Social Democrats (SPD) and DNVP. He declined another appointment as chancellor on 9 Jan 1925. For a short time in 1925 Marx headed the Prussian government (18 Feb 1925 - 6 Apr 1925), but resigned to run for the presidency of the German Reich. He lost about one million votes to Paul von Hindenburg in the second round (26 Apr 1925). In January 1926 Marx joined the second government of Hans Luther as justice minister and acting minister for the occupied territories (19 Jan 1926 - 16 May 1926). Following the resignation of Luther, Marx formed another minority government (Center, DVP, DDP, Bavarian People's Party) and was appointed Reich Chancellor (17 May 1926). No confidence vote in the Reichstag (17 Dec 1926, 249:171) initiated by the Social Democrats brought about the resignation of Marx and his government, but after the negotiations of Julius Curtius (DVP) with party leaders failed, Reich President Hindenburg commissioned Marx to form his fourth government (Center, DNVP, DVP, Bavarian People's Party). When the elections of 1928 brought one third of the seats to SPD, Marx, whose party lost seven mandates, tendered his resignation (12 Jun 1928). In December 1928 he also resigned as the Centre Party chairperson. In 1932 Marx gave up his Reichstag seat and retired from politics. Biography source: [4][5]


[1] Bundesarchiv Koblenz, R 43 I/1390.
[2] Bundesarchiv Koblenz, R 43 I/1306.
[3] Bundesarchiv Koblenz, R 43 I/1308, Bl. 143ff.
[4] Akten der Reichskanzlei: Weimarer Republik. Die Kabinette Marx I und II, Band I und II (Boppard am Rhein: Harald Boldt Verlag, 1973).
[5] Akten der Reichskanzlei: Weimarer Republik. Die Kabinette Marx III und IV, Band I und II (Boppard am Rhein: Harald Boldt Verlag, 1988).
  Image: contemporary photograph, Deutsches Historisches Museum, Berlin.
Last updated on: 01 May 2010 03:24:34