France: Consuls of the Republic: 1799

Consul de la République française [1]
10 Nov 1799 - 25 Dec 1799 Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyès
10 Nov 1799 - 25 Dec 1799 Pierre-Roger Ducos, dit Roger-Ducos
10 Nov 1799 - 25 Dec 1799 Napoléon Bonaparte
History:

The Commission consulaire exécutive (Executive Consular Commission) [2] was appointed according to provisions of the Law of 19 Brumaire, Year VIII (10 Nov 1799) passed by the Conseil des Anciens (Council of Ancients). The law was enacted as a result of the coup d'état (9 Nov 1799 - 10 Nov 1799) engineered by supporters of general Napoléon Bonaparte and aimed at overthrowing the government of the Directoire exécutif (Executive Directory). Convinced in the existence of a Jacobin plot, the Council of Ancients resolved (9 Nov 1799) to move the seat of legislative bodies to Saint-Cloud, west of Paris. After hostile reception of Bonaparte (10 Nov 1799), who appeared first in the Council of Ancients and then in the Conseil des Cinq-Cents (Council of Five Hundred), his brother, Lucien Bonaparte, as president of the Five Hundred, and other plotters sent grenadiers to clear the halls. Intimidated by the troops, a rump of the Five Hundred reassembled at 21:00 10 Nov 1799 and soon approved a draft law to the effect that the Directory ceases to exist, Sieyès, Roger-Ducos, and Bonaparte should compose an executive commission under the title of consuls of the French Republic, that the legislature should adjourn until 20 Feb 1800, and a committee of twenty-five members from each Council being left to deliberate along with the consuls upon changes to be made to the constitution. The Council of Ancients also met in the same palace after 21:00 10 Nov 1799 and approved all proposals made by the Five Hundred between 24:00 10 Nov 1799 and 01:00 11 Nov 1799. The provisional consulate existed until a new constitution was drafted by Sieyès and finally entered into effect on 25 Dec 1799. Information source: [3]


[1] The consuls agreed at their first meeting in Paris (11 Nov 1799) that there would be no président du consulat, but only a consul de jour, whose functions rotated daily (Gazette nationale ou Le Moniteur universel, No. 52, 22 brumaire an VIII).
[2] The consuls were appointed as members of commission consulaire exécutive, but the official style used in legal practice was Les consuls de la République (française).
[3] "Gouvernements, ministères et constitutions de la France de 1789 a 1895", by Léon Muel (Paris: Librairie Guillaumin et Cie, 1895).
Last updated on: 26 Jun 2009 03:26:38