Henri IV

Henri IV

b. 13 Dec 1553, Pau, Béarn, Navarre [1]
d. 14 May 1610, Paris, France

Title: Par la grâce de Dieu, Roi de France et de Navarre = Dei Gratia Francorum et Navarrae Rex (By the Grace of God, King of France and Navarre)
Term: 2 Aug 1589 - 14 May 1610
Chronology: 2 Aug 1589, succeeded to the throne
27 Feb 1594, consecrated and crowned, cathédrale Notre-Dame, Chartres [2]
30 Mar 1594, recognized as King of France by the Parlement de Paris
14 May 1610, died (assassination)
Names/titles: Private name: Henri de Bourbon; duc de Vendôme (duke of Vendôme) [from 17 Nov 1562];
Other offices: Roi de Navarre (king of Navarre) as Henri III [9 Jun 1572 - 14 May 1610]
Biography:
The son of Antoine de Bourbon, duc de Vendôme, and Jeanne d'Albret, Queen of Navarre; inherited the throne of Navarre upon mother's death (9 Jun 1572); married (18 Aug 1572) Marguerite de France, daughter of King Henri II and Catherine de Médicis; through his father, was in the sole legitimate line of descent from the Capetian kings of France; became the heir presumptive to the throne of France following the death of Hercule-François de France duc d'Anjou (10 Jun 1584), the last surviving brother of King Henri III; was opposed by the Holy League unwilling to accept a Protestant king; excluded from the succession by the Treaty of Nemours (1585) between Henri III and the Holy League; defeated the French king's army at the Battle of Coutras (20 Oct 1587); sponsored the assassination of the League's leader, Henri Duke of Guise (23 Dec 1588); reconciled with Henri III and was proclaimed successor to the throne; succeeded upon the assassination of Henri III (2 Aug 1589); entered the war with the Holy League, supporting Charles cardinal de Bourbon proclaimed as King Charles X; won victories at Arques (1589) and Ivry (1590); laid unsuccessful sieges of Paris (1590) and of Rouen (1591-1592); undertook a conversion to Roman Catholicism (July 1593) and was crowned at Chartres (27 Feb 1594); entered Paris (22 Mar 1594) and was recognized by the Parlement de Paris (30 Mar 1594); declared war on Spain (1595) and undertook operations against the League and its Spanish allies, defeating them at Fontaine-Française (1595) and retaking Amiens (September 1597); agreed to the terms of the Peace of Vervins between France and Spain (2 May 1598); signed the Edict of Nantes, which confirmed Roman Catholicism as the state church (13 Apr 1598); after annulment of the marriage (1599) with Marguerite de France by pope Clementius VIII, married (27 Dec 1600) Maria de ' Medici (French: Marie de Médicis), daughter of grand-duke Francesco I of Tuscany; was assassinated in Paris (14 May 1610) by a fanatical Roman Catholic.
Biographical sources: "Henri IV", by Jean-Pierre Babelon (Paris: Fayard, 1982); "Henri IV", by François Bayrou (Paris: Flammarion, 1994); "Henry IV", by David Buisseret (London: Allen & Unwin, 1984); "Henry IV", by Janine Garrisson (Paris: Seuil, 1984); "Henry of Navarre: Henry IV of France", by Lord Russell of Liverpool (New York: Praeger, 1970); "The Conversion of Henry IV: Politics, Power and Religious Belief in Early Modern France", by Michael Wolfe (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1993).

[1] Henri was born after 00:00 13 Dec 1553. See Babelon, Henri IV: "… entre minuit et une heure dans la nuit du 12 au 13 décembre 1553 (et non le 14, comme on l'a dit souvent) que les douleurs saisirent la mère…"
[2] "L'ordre des ceremonies du sacre et couronnement du Treſ-Chreſtien Roy de France et de Navarre Henry quatrieſme du nom. Faict en l'Egliſe de Noſtre Dame de la ville de Chartres, le Dimanche 27. de Feurier, 1594." (Lyon: G. Jullieron et T. Ancelin, 1594)
Last updated on: 26 Jun 2009 03:26:17