Biography of Charles X (cardinal de Bourbon) -
Charles X (cardinal de Bourbon)

Charles X

b. 22 Dec 1523, La-Ferté-sous-Jouarre
d. 9 May 1590, Fontenay-le-Comte

Title: Par la grâce de Dieu, Roi de France = Dei Gratia Francorum Rex (By the Grace of God, King of France)
Term: 21 Nov 1589 - 9 May 1590
21 Nov 1589, recognized as King of France in absentia by an act of the Parlement of Paris [1][2]
9 May 1590, died
Names/titles: Original name: Charles de Bourbon

Third son of Charles de Bourbon, duc de Vendôme and Françoise d'Alençon, duchesse of Beaumont; younger brother of Antoine de Bourbon, King of Navarre, and uncle of Henri de Bourbon (future King Henri IV of France and Navarre); bishop of Nevers (5 Jul 1540 - 5 May 1546) and Saintes (23 Jan 1544 - 19 Mar 1550); created cardinal deacon (9 Jan 1548); archbishop of Rouen (3 Oct 1550 - 1582) and bishop of Beauvais (1569-1575); was the eldest member of the House of Bourbon, who could claim the French throne by right of belonging to the Roman Catholic religion, upon the death of duc d'Anjou (1584), brother of King Henri III; recognized as a heir to the throne of France by a secret agreement between the party of the duc de Guise and King Felipe II of Spain (1584); after the assassination of Guise (23 Dec 1588), was arrested and imprisoned in Tours, and then in Fontenay-le-Comte in Poitou; when Henri III died (2 Aug 1589), the duc de Mayenne called for recognition (5 Aug 1589) of cardinal de Bourbon as king under the name of Charles X; recognized as King of France in absentia by an act of the Parlement of Paris (21 Nov 1589); on 5 Mar 1590 the Parlement issued another act [1, vol 15, pp. 18-19] calling for recognition of Charles X and putting a ban on the conclusion of peace agreements with Henri IV; died in detention (9 May 1590) [3]. Biography source: [4]

[1] Recueil général des anciennes lois françaises depuis l'an 420 jusqu'à la Révolution de 1789, ed. by Jourdan, Isambert, Decrusy et al. (Paris: Belin-Leprieur: Plon, 1821-1833) , vol. 15, p. 10.
[2] 21 Nov 1589 - 30 Mar 1594 Lieutenant général de l'État royal et couronne de France Charles de Lorraine, duc de Mayenne [appointed by a resolution of the Sainte Ligue (Holy League) (17 Feb 1589), confirmed by the Parlement of Paris (21 Nov 1589), delegation of authority revoked (30 Mar 1594) [1, vol. 15, pp. 85-87]]
[3] There is evidence that in March 1590 Cardinal de Bourbon sent a letter to Henri IV, acknowledging him as the legal heir to the crown.
[4] "Dictionnaire des cardinaux", by Charles Berton (Paris: J.-P. Migne, 1857; facsimile edition: Farnborough: Gregg, 1969).
Image: silver coin (1590) with the legend CAROLVS • X • D • G • FRANCORVM REX
Last updated on: 26 Jun 2009 10:26:15