Schuman, Robert

Jean-Baptiste Nicolas Robert Schuman

b. 29 Jun 1886, Clausen/Luxembourg City, Luxembourg
d. 4 Sep 1963, Scy-Chazelles, Moselle, France

Title: Président du Conseil des ministres (President of the Council of Ministers)
Term: 24 Nov 1947 - 24 Jul 1948
Chronology: 22 Nov 1947, endorsed by the vote of investiture, session of the Assemblée nationale (National Assembly), Palais-Bourbon, Paris [1]
24 Nov 1947, appointed on the list of members of the Council of Ministers, decree of the President of the Republic [2]
24 Jul 1948, ceased to exercise the functions of office upon the appointment of a successor [3]
Term: 2 Sep 1948 - 11 Sep 1948
Chronology: 31 Aug 1948, endorsed by the vote of investiture, session of the Assemblée nationale (National Assembly), Palais-Bourbon, Paris [4]
2 Sep 1948, appointed, decree of the President of the Republic [5]
11 Sep 1948, ceased to exercise the functions of office upon the appointment of a successor [6]
Biography:
Born in Luxembourg to prosperous Roman Catholic parents who originated from Lorraine and held German citizenship; attended the Stater Kolléisch, secondary school in Luxembourg (1896-1903); to enter a German university, he had to pass the Abitur exam (1904) in the Kaiserliche Gymnasium in Metz, German Reich; studied in the universities of Bonn (1904), Munich (1904-1905), Berlin (1905-1906), and Strasbourg (1906-1908); passed his first state examination in 1908; worked as legal intern in Metz (1908-1910); earned doctor's degree in 1910 and after the final examination opened a law practice in Metz (1912); served in an auxiliary unit of the German army (1914); was seconded to the civil service in Boulay (1915); served on the city council of Metz (1918-1919); renounced German citizenship in favor of French (1919); elected to the Chambre des députés (Chamber of Deputies), representing the département of Moselle (1919-1928) and the circonscription of Thionville-Est (1928-1940); served as secretary (1920-1927, 1936-1940), vice-president (1927-1929) and president (1929-1936) of the Consultative Council of Alsace-Lorraine in Strasbourg; member of the parliamentary finance committee (1929-1939); general councilor the Cattenom region (from 1936); joined the Cabinet of Paul Reynaud as under-secretary for refugees (1940); arrested by the German secret police (14 Sep 1940); was imprisoned in Metz (1940-1941) and then sent to Neustadt an der Weinstrasse, Germany (1941); fled to southern France (1942) where he was hiding in a monastery; joined the Popular Republican Movement (Mouvement républicain populaire, MRP); elected a member of the first (1945-1946) and second (1946) Assemblée nationale constituante (Constituent National Assembly), representing Moselle; served as minister of finance (24 Jun 1946 - 16 Dec 1946, 22 Jan 1947 - 24 Nov 1947) in the governments of Georges Bidault and Paul Ramadier; formed his first government of Troisième Force (gaullists, socialists, radicals) and took the office of President of the Council of Ministers (24 Nov 1947 - 24 Jul 1948); favored a program of austerity in economy, announced the devaluation of franc (25 Jan 1948); quelled workers' uprisings in 1948; after the fall of his first Cabinet, he was appointed minister for foreign affairs (26 Jul 1948 - 8 Jan 1953) in the Cabinet of André Marie; attempted to build another coalition government, taking up the office of President of the Council of Ministers (2 Sep 1948 - 11 Sep 1948) and continuing as minister for foreign affairs; his government failed to recieve approval of the Assembly (7 Sep 1948), collecting 289 votes out of 293 required; joined the Cabinet of Henri Queuille as minister for foreign affairs and held this office in the next few cabinets; was instrumental in creating a supranational European Community (Schuman Declaration of 9 May 1950; Treaty of Paris of 1951); actively supported the creation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation; served as minister of justice (23 Feb 1955 - 1 Feb 1956) in the government of Edgar Faure; President of the European Parliamentary Assembly (19 Mar 1958 - 28 Mar 1960).
Biographical sources: "Robert Schuman: homme d'Etat, 1886-1963", by Raymond Poidevin (Paris: Imprimerie nationale, 1986).
Elections:

Vote of investiture (22 Nov 1947)
votes cast 596
constitutional majority 309
in favour 412
against 184

Vote of investiture (31 Aug 1948)
votes cast 507
constitutional majority 311
in favour 322
against 185
Source of electoral results: Journal officiel de la République française. Débats parlementaires. Compte rendu in extenso des séances de l'Assemblée nationale et du Conseil de la République. N° 120. Dimanche 23 Novembre 1947. P. 5129-5130; Journal officiel de la République française. Débats parlementaires. Compte rendu in extenso des séances de l'Assemblée nationale et du Conseil de la République. N° 116. Jeudi 1er Septembre 1948. P. 6432-6433.

[1] Journal officiel de la République française. Débats parlementaires. Compte rendu in extenso des séances de l'Assemblée nationale et du Conseil de la République. N° 120. Dimanche 23 Novembre 1947. P. 5123-5128.
[2] Journal officiel de la République française. Lois et Décrets. N° 276. Lundi 24 Novembre 1947. P. 11630.
[3] Journal officiel de la République française. Lois et Décrets. N° 174. Dimanche 25 Juillet 1948. P. 7267.
[4] Journal officiel de la République française. Débats parlementaires. Compte rendu in extenso des séances de l'Assemblée nationale et du Conseil de la République. N° 116. Jeudi 1er Septembre 1948. P. 6404-6420.
[5] Journal officiel de la République française. Lois et Décrets. N° 208. Jeudi 2 Septembre 1948. P. 8658.
[6] Journal officiel de la République française. Lois et Décrets. N° 217. Dimanche 12 Septembre 1948. P. 9010.
Last updated on: 26 Jun 2009 03:26:06