Vadier, Marc-Guillaume

Marc-Guillaume-Alexis Vadier

b. 17 Jul 1736, Pamiers, Ariège, France [1]
d. 14 Dec 1828, Brussels, Netherlands (now Belgium)

Title: Président de la Convention nationale (President of the National Convention)
Term: 20 Jan 1794 - 4 Feb 1794
Chronology: 20 Jan 1794, elected, session of the National Convention, salle des Machines, Palais national des Tuileries, Paris [2]
21 Jan 1794, assumed the chair, session of the National Convention, salle des Machines, Palais national des Tuileries, Paris [3]
4 Feb 1794, ceased to exercise the functions of office upon the election of a successor [4]
Names/titles: Baptised (17 Jul 1736): Marc-Guillaume Vadier; "Alexis" was added to his names in childhood and formally inserted into baptismal records by an ordinance of 16 Jul 1770.
Biography:
The son of a tithe collector; educated in the Collège de Jésuites at Pamiers (1745-1749) and Collège des Doctrinaires de l'Esquille at Toulouse (1749-1753); served as solider in the regiment of Piémont (1753-1757) at Toulouse; promoted to lieutenant (1755); resigned from the army after a military campaign in Germany and acquired a land property; returned to studies and received bachelor's degree in law (1770); appointed (8 Aug 1770) royal councilor in the sénéchaussé of Pamiers; elected (9 Apr 1789) as a representative of the Third Estate of Pamiers, comté de Foix to the États-Généraux (Estates-General); served as deputy of the Assemblée nationale (National Assembly) (1789-1791); after the flight of King Louis XVI demanded (14 Jul 1791) to summon a national convention to depose the king; president of the Tribunal of the district of Mirepoix (from 15 Nov 1791); elected (3 Sep 1792) to the Convention nationale (National Convention) (1792-1795) as a deputy for the département of Ariège; joined the Montagnards; voted for the death sentence in the trial of Louis XVI; member of the Comité de sûreté générale (Committee of General Security) (14 Sep 1793 - 1 Sep 1794), serving as its vice-president and president; responsible for directing political police in Paris; sworn enemy of Maximilien Robespierre and Georges Danton; served as President of the National Convention (20 Jan 1794 - 4 Feb 1794); applauded the fall of Robespierre, but remained true Montagnard; was denounced and sentenced to exile (1 Apr 1795); escaped arrest and went into hiding until he was amnestied (26 Oct 1795); arrested (3 Jun 1796) in connection with the conspiracy of Babeuf; although acquitted (28 May 1796), he was not released until Sep 1799; amnestied by the consuls (1799); lived in Paris, then in Toulouse; banned as a regicide (1816) and moved to Brussels.
Biographical sources: Dictionnaire des Conventionnels, 593-594; Dictionnaire des parlementaires français 1789-1889, 5:467-468; Dictionnaire des Constituants, 2:912-913; "Vadier, président du Comité de sûreté générale sous la terreur (d'après des documents inédits)", by Albert Tournier (Paris: Ernest Flammarion, 1896) (web site)
Elections:

Candidate Votes (20 Jan 1794)
Marc-Guillaume-Alexis Vadier unanimously
Source of electoral results: Archives parlementaires - Série 1, 83:511; Procès-verbal de la Convention nationale, 30:18.

[1] "Vadier, président du Comité de sûreté générale", op. cit., p. 37: "L'an mil sept cent trente-six et le dix-septième juillet est né Marc-Guillaume-Alexis Vadier, fils légitime et naturel à M. Victor Vadier, bourgeois et receveur des décimes du clergé de Pamiers et Mlle Philippe de Massot, mariés de la paroisse Notre-Dame-du-Camp et a été ondoyé et reçue l'eau le même jour par moi curé, subsigné dans la maison de M. Vadier, par permission de MM. les vicaires généraux. Les cérémonies du baptême ont été suppléées le vingt-neuvième du même mois dans l'église du Camp. <...> Ordonnance de M. le sénéchal de Pamiers, du 16 juillet 1770, qui ordonne que le nom d'Alexis sera joint à ceux de Marc-Guillaume Vadier, ayant été omis lors du baptême du sieur Vadier. Marast, chanoine et curé (Etat civil de la commune de Pamiers)."
[2] Archives parlementaires - Série 1, 83:511; Procès-verbal de la Convention nationale, 30:18.
[3] Archives parlementaires - Série 1, 83:512-529.
[4] Archives parlementaires - Série 1, 84:293; Procès-verbal de la Convention nationale, 31:17.
Last updated on: 04 Oct 2013 12:16:40