Rühl, Philippe

Philippe-Jacques Rühl

b. 3 May 1737, Strasbourg
d. 29 (or 30) May 1795, Paris

Title: Président de la Convention nationale (President of the National Convention) [1]
Term: 20 Sep 1792 - 20 Sep 1792
Chronology: 20 Sep 1792, assumed the chair with general consent as the oldest deputy attending the session, session of the Convention, salle des Cent-Suisses, Palais national des Tuileries, Paris [2]
  20 Sep 1792, ceased to exercise the functions of office upon the election of a successor [3]
Term: 6 Mar 1794 - 21 Mar 1794
Chronology: 6 Mar 1794, elected, session of the National Convention, salle des Machines, Palais national des Tuileries, Paris [4][5]
7 Mar 1794, assumed the chair, session of the National Convention, salle des Machines, Palais national des Tuileries, Paris [4]
21 Mar 1794, ceased to exercise the functions of office upon the election of a successor [6]
Biography:
Son of a Lutheran minister; studied theology at the University of Strasbourg; director of gymnasium at Durckheim, Germany; served as a tutor at the princely court of Leiningen-Dachsburg (Linange-Hartenbourg); as court counselor, participated in settling succession dispute with the Italian branch of the family; returned to Alsace, where became administrator of the département of Bas-Rhin; elected (31 Aug 1791) as a representative of Bas-Rhin to the Assemblée nationale (National Assembly) (1791-1792); sat with the extreme left wing of the deputies; deputy member of the Commission extraordinaire des Douze (Extraordinary Commission of Twelve) (18 Jun 1792 - 21 Sep 1792); elected (4 Sep 1792) to the Convention nationale (National Convention) (1792-1795) as a deputy for Bas-Rhin; presided at the first session of the Convention as the oldest deputy present (20 Sep 1792); joined the Montagne faction; was absent from the Convention during the trial of King Louis XVI; member of the Comité de sûreté générale (Committee of General Security) (14 Sep 1793 - 31 Aug 1794); sent on missions as representative of the Convention to Marne and Haute-Marne (16 Sep 1793 - 3 Nov 1793) for levée en masse, and to Bas-Rhin (23 Nov 1793 - 8 Jan 1794) for organizing the district of Neu-Saarwerden; showed his revolutionary zeal by breaking the vessel containing the sacred oil for anointment of the French kings at Reims (8 Oct 1793); served as President of the National Convention (6 Mar 1794 - 21 Mar 1794); sent as representative of the Convention to Bas-Rhin and Haut-Rhin (24 Jul 1794 - 25 Aug 1794, left Paris 1 Aug 1794); participated in the revolt of 1 Prairial, Year III (20 May 1795), addressing the insurgents with the words "Du pain et la Constitution de 1793!" ("Bread and Constitution of 1793!"); was threatened with indictment, but subjected to house arrest "in view of his advanced age"; called before the military commission (28 May 1795) and committed suicide by stabbing himself with a dagger.
Biographical sources: Dictionnaire des Conventionnels, 545-547; Dictionnaire des parlementaires français 1789-1889, 5:226-227.
Elections:

Candidate Votes (6 Mar 1794)
Philippe-Jacques Rühl 140
voters/absolute majority 175/88
Source of electoral results: Archives parlementaires - Série 1, 86:147.

[1] Also referred to as doyen d'âge in the minutes published in Archives parlementaires - Série 1, 52:65-67.
[2] Archives parlementaires - Série 1, 52:65.
[3] Archives parlementaires - Série 1, 52:67.
[4] Archives parlementaires - Série 1, 86:147.
[5] Procès-verbal de la Convention nationale, 33:64-65.
[6] Archives parlementaires - Série 1, 87:58; Procès-verbal de la Convention nationale, 34:30.
  Image: engraving by E. Thomas.
Last updated on: 04 Oct 2013 12:16:29