Liao: Polity Style: 907-1123 - Archontology.org

Liao: Polity Style: 907-1123

27 Feb 907 or 17 Mar 916 chieftan of a Khitan tribe, Ābǎojī (阿保機) acceded to the imperial throne (History of Liao, ch. 1) [1]
916/917 Qìdān (契丹) is accepted as the name of the state (Khitan State Records, ch. 1) [1]
916/917 - 938 or 947 Qìdān (契丹) | Khitan
938 or 947 name of the state is changed to Dà Liáo (大遼) (History of Liao, ch. 4) [2]
938 or 947 - 983 Dà Liáo (大遼) | Great Liao
983 name of the state is changed to Dà Qìdān (大契丹) (Eastern Capital Account, ch. 123; Khitan State Records, ch. 7)
983 - 1066/1067 Dà Qìdān (大契丹) | Great Khitan (Eastern Capital Account, ch. 123; Khitan State Records, ch. 9)
1066/1067 name of the state is changed to Dà Liáo (大遼)
1066/1067 - 4 Jan 1123 Dà Liáo (大遼) | Great Liao
4 Jan 1123 the Southern Capital of Liao is captured by the army of Jurchen Jin (History of Liao, ch. 29; History of Jin, ch. 2) [3]

[1] 27 Feb 907 is the date cited in History of Liao, ch. 1, when Ābǎojī acceded to the imperial throne and was given the honorific title of Tiān huángdì (天皇帝). The same source records a ceremony (17 Mar 916) when the ruler was given another honorific title, but the accession is not mentioned. Other sources date the accession to different years. Khitan State Records, ch. 1, does not mention any related event in 907, but says that Ābǎojī proclaimed himself emperor and named his state as Qìdān (契丹) in the first year of Shéncè (神冊), i.e. 916/917. This event is also recorded in History of Liao, ch. 1, under 17 Mar 916, although without a reference to the name of the state.
[2] Eastern Capital Account, ch. 123, recorded the change of the name under 17 Dec 938, Khitan State Records, ch. 2 under 937, while History of Liao, ch. 4, provides a differenet date: 24 Feb 947. In other sources this event is said to have occurred between 926 and 947.
[3] The conquest of Liao by the armies of Jurchen Jin included the capture of the five capitals of Liao: Eastern Capital (1116), Supreme Capital (1120), Central Capital (1122) and Western Capital (1122). The Southern Capital, also called Yānjīng (燕京), located on the territory of modern Beijing, was captured on 31 Dec 1122 and the ruler of Jurchen Jin Āgǔdǎ entered the city on 4 Jan 1123.
Last updated on: 16 May 2022 16:54:26