Liao: Emperors: 922-1123 - Archontology.org

Liao: Emperors: 922-1123

Each ruler is recorded under the following protocol: temple name (miàohào | 廟號) || sinicised personal name (míng | ), considered tabooed (huì | ) upon accession; posthumous name (shì | ). The native (Khitan) names recorded in Chinese characters and courtesy names (zì | ) are included where applicable. The years of bestowal or change are given in brackets.
Ruling House: Yēlǜ (耶律)
Tiānhuáng wáng (天皇王)
922/923 - 6 Sep 926 Tàizǔ (太祖) [926] || Yēlǜ Yì (耶律億) [1]
  native name: Ābǎojī (阿保機) [2]
  posthumous name: Shàng shēng tiān huángdì (上升天皇帝) (?), Dà shèng dà míng tiān huángdì (大聖大明天皇帝) [1008], Dà shèng dà míng shén liè tiān huángdì (大聖大明神烈天皇帝) [1052]
   
Huángdì (皇帝) [3]
Oct/Nov 926 - 15 May 947 Tàizōng (太宗) [947] || Yēlǜ Déguāng (耶律德光)
  native name: Yáogǔ (堯骨)
  courtesy name: Déjǐn (德謹)
  posthumous name: Xiào wǔ huángdì (孝武皇帝) [1008], Xiào wǔ huì wén huángdì (孝武惠文皇帝) [1052]
   
16 May 947 - 7 Oct 951 Shìzōng (世宗) [952] || Yēlǜ Ruǎn (耶律阮)
  native name: Wùyù (兀欲)
  posthumous name: Xiào hé huángdì (孝和皇帝) [952], Xiào hé zhuāng xiàn huángdì (孝和莊憲皇帝) [1008]
   
11 Oct 951 - 12 Mar 969 Mùzōng (穆宗) [969?] || Yēlǜ Jǐng (耶律璟)
  native name: Shùlǜ (述律)
  posthumous name: Xiào ān jìng zhèng huángdì (孝安敬正皇帝) [1052]
   
13 Mar 969 - 13 Oct 982 Jǐngzōng (景宗) [983] || Yēlǜ Xián (耶律賢)
  native name (?): Míngyǐ (明扆)
  courtesy name: Xiánníng (賢寧)
  posthumous name: Xiào chéng huángdì (孝成皇帝) [983], Xiào chéng kāng jìng huángdì (孝成康靖皇帝) [1052]
   
14 Oct 982 - 25 Jun 1031 Shèngzōng (聖宗) [1031] || Yēlǜ Lóngxù (耶律隆緒)
  native name: Wénshūnú (文殊奴)
  posthumous name: Wén wǔ dà xiào xuān huángdì (文武大孝宣皇帝) [1031]
   
25 Jun 1031 - 28 Aug 1055 Xīngzōng (興宗) [1055] || Yēlǜ Zōngzhēn (耶律宗真)
  native name: Yíbùjǐn (夷不堇) [4]
  posthumous name: Shén shèng xiào zhāng huángdì (神聖孝章皇帝) [1055]
   
28 Aug 1055 - 12 Feb 1101 Dàozōng (道宗) [1101] || Yēlǜ Hóngjī (耶律洪基)
  native name: Nièlín (涅鄰) [5]
  posthumous name: Rén shèng dà xiào wén huángdì (仁聖大孝文皇帝) [1101]
   
12 Feb 1101 - 22 Apr 1122 no temple name bestowed || Yēlǜ Yánxǐ (耶律延禧) [6][7]
  native name: Āguǒ (阿果)
  courtesy name: Yánníng (延寧)
   
22 Apr 1122 - Jul/Aug 1122 Xuānzōng (宣宗) [1122] || Yēlǜ Chún (耶律淳)
  native name: Nièlǐ (涅里)
  posthumous name: Xiào zhāng huángdì (孝章皇帝) [1122] [8][9]
   

[1] In the early 10th century Ābǎojī emerged as the leader of the Khitan. History of Liao, ch. 1, recorded his "accession to imperial throne" on 27 Feb 907, but this event stands uncorroborated by other sources and appears to be fictitious. Evidently more reliable account is found in Khitan State Records, ch. 1, claiming that Ābǎojī named himself emperor (locally known as Tiānhuáng wáng | 天皇王) in the first year of Shéncè (神冊) which corresponds to 916/917, but this era was apparently invented later and applied retrospectively. Old History of the Five Dynasties, ch. 137, recorded the adoption of this title by the end of Tiānyòu (天祐) era [922/923].
[2] Other name as found in History of Liao: Chuòlǐzhǐ (啜裡只) [probably a childhood name recorded in Chinese characters].
[3] The imperial title was accepted probably between the adoption of Tiānxiǎn (天顯) [928/929] as the era name of Liao and the first reference to the emperor of the Great Khitan (Dà Qìdān huángdì | 大契丹皇帝) [28 Nov 936] as found in Old History of the Five Dynasties, ch. 75.
[4] Other name as found in History of Liao: Zhǐgǔ (只骨).
[5] Other name as found in History of Liao: Chálá (查剌).
[6] Left the Southern Capital before Yēlǜ Chún was proclaimed emperor (22 Apr 1122) and moved between different parts of Liao until his capture by Jurchen Jin on 26 Mar 1125.
[7] Demoted to prince (in absentia): Xiāngyīn wáng (湘陰王) [1122] (conferred by Xuānzōng); Hǎibīn wáng (海濱王) [1125] (conferred by the ruler of Jurchen Jin); Yù wáng (豫王) [1141] (conferred by the ruler of Jurchen Jin). Also known under honorific names (zūnhào | 尊號) bestowed during his reign: Tiān zuò huángdì (天祚皇帝) [1101], Huì wén zhì wǔ shèng xiào tiān zuò huángdì (惠文智武聖孝天祚皇帝) [1103].
[8] Posthumously demoted to commoner rank [1123].
[9] After the death of Xuānzōng and subsequent capture of the Southern Capital by the the army of Jurchen Jin, a number of emperors were proclaimed:
 
  • Yēlǜ Dìng (耶律定). Proclaimed in absentia in the Southern Capital (Jul/Aug 1122), captured by Jurchen Jin (Jun 1123);
  • Xī wáng (奚王) Huílíbǎo (回離保). Proclaimed himself emperor of the state of Xi (Xī guó | 奚國) in early 1123 and was killed c. Jun 1123;
  • Liáng wáng (梁王) Yǎlǐ (雅里). Proclaimed emperor in the northwest of Liao (3 Jun 1123) and died in Oct/Nov 1123.
Last updated on: 18 May 2022 22:07:58