China: Provisional Government (Nanjing): 1911-1912 - Archontology.org

China: Provisional Government (Nanjing): 1911-1912

The Military Government of the province of Hubei was recognized as the Central Military Government (Zhōngyāng jūn zhèngfǔ | 中央軍政府) and the Chief Supervisor of the Hubei Army (È jūn dūdū | 鄂軍都督), Lí Yuánhóng (黎元洪), was authorised to perform some executive functions by resolutions of the United Assembly of Representatives of the Provincial Military Governments (Gèshěng dūdūfǔ dàibiǎo liánhé huì | 各省都督府代表聯合會) on 20 Nov 1911 (session held in Shanghai) and 30 Nov 1911 (session held in Wuchang).
Organizational Outline of the Provisional Government of the Republic of China (Zhōnghuá mínguó línshí zhèngfǔ zǔzhī dàgāng | 中華民國臨時政府組織大綱), adopted on 3 Dec 1911, provided for the election of a Provisional President (Línshí dàzǒngtǒng | 臨時大總統). Pending such an election, the office of Chief Supervisor of the Hubei Army was again recognized (4 Dec 1911) as the Central Military Government with authority to represent the provincial military governments.
Dàyuánshuài (大元帥) | Grand Marshal (ex officio) [1]
27 Dec 1911 -  1 Jan 1912 Lí Yuánhóng (黎元洪) [2][3]
Línshí dàzǒngtǒng (臨時大總統) | Provisional President [4]
1 Jan 1912 - 1 Apr 1912 Sūn Wén (孫文)

[1] On 4 Dec 1911 a rival faction of the United Assembly of Representatives of the Provincial Military Governments, still sitting in Shanghai, elected Huáng Xīng (黃興) and Lí Yuánhóng Grand Marshal (Dàyuánshuài | 大元帥) and Vice Marshal (Fù yuánshuài | 副元帥) respectively. Both Huáng Xīng and Lí Yuánhóng declined to accept the election.
[2] The United Assembly, reconvened in Nanjing, amended the Organizational Outline of the Provisional Government on 15 Dec 1911, to authorize the Grand Marshal to exercise the functions of the Provisional President of the Republic, pending the election of the Provisional President. On 17 Dec 1911 the United Assembly elected Lí Yuánhóng as the Grand Marshal and Huáng Xīng as the Vice Marshal. Lí Yuánhóng accepted the election in a message sent to the Assembly on 20 Dec 1911 (submitted to the session on 23 Dec 1911), and, remaining in Wuchang, nominated Vice Marshal Huáng Xīng to serve as his representative in the national capital, Nanjing. Huáng Xīng arrived to Nanjing and assumed office on 27 Dec 1911.
[3] Lí Yuánhóng continued in office as the Grand Marshal until he resigned it in a message to the Senate (Cānyìyuàn | 參議院) of 15 Feb 1912.
[4] Sūn Wén took oath of office as Provisional President, but official legislation was invariably issued in the name of President (Dàzǒngtǒng | 大總統). His resignation (dated 13 Feb 1912) was submitted to the Senate (Cānyìyuàn | 參議院) on 14 Feb 1912, pending the election of a successor. After the election and inauguration of Yuán Shìkǎi in Beijing (10 Mar 1912), Sūn Wén handed over the seals of office to the Chairman of the Senate on 1 Apr 1912.
Last updated on: 20 Oct 2020 22:36:45