China: Heads of State (Guangzhou): 1917-1925

Lù hǎi jūn dàyuánshuài (陸海軍大元帥) | Generalissimo of the Army and Navy
10 Sep 1917 - 21 May 1918 Sūn Wén (孫文) [1]
   
Zhōnghuá mínguó jūnzhèngfǔ (中華民國軍政府) | Military Government of the Republic of China [2]
Zhèngwù zǒngcái (政務總裁) | Director of Government Affairs [3][4]
5 Jul 1918 - 24 Oct 1920 Cén Chūnxuàn (岑春煊)
5 Jul 1918 - 24 Oct 1920 Lù Róngtíng (陸榮廷)
5 Jul 1918 - 24 Oct 1920 Táng Jìyāo (唐繼堯)
5 Jul 1918 - 24 Oct 1920 Wǔ Tíngfāng (伍廷芳)
5 Jul 1918 - 24 Oct 1920 Lín Bǎoyì (林葆懌)
7 May 1920 - 24 Oct 1920 Wēn Zōngyáo (溫宗堯) [5]
Zhèngwù zǒngcái zhǔxí (政務總裁主席) | Presiding Director of Government Affairs [6]
21 Aug 1918 - 24 Oct 1920 Cén Chūnxuàn (岑春煊)
   
Zhōnghuá mínguó jūnzhèngfǔ (中華民國軍政府) | Military Government of the Republic of China [7]
Zhèngwù zǒngcái (政務總裁) | Director of Government Affairs
29 Nov 1920 - 4 May 1921 Sūn Wén (孫文) (x)
29 Nov 1920 - 4 May 1921 Táng Shàoyí (唐紹儀)
29 Nov 1920 - 4 May 1921 Wǔ Tíngfāng (伍廷芳) (x)
29 Nov 1920 - 4 May 1921 Táng Jìyāo (唐繼堯) (x) [8]
Dàzǒngtǒng (大總統) | President [9][10]
5 May 1921 - 9 Aug 1922 Sūn Wén (孫文) (x) [11]
   
Zhōnghuá mínguó lù hǎi jūn dàyuánshuài (中華民國陸海軍大元帥) | Generalissimo of the Army and Navy of the Republic of China
21 Feb 1923 - 12 Mar 1925 Sūn Wén (孫文) (x) [12]
Dàběnyíng zǒngcānyì dàixíng dàyuánshuài zhíquán jiān Guǎngdōng shěngzhǎng (大本營總參議代行大元帥職權兼廣東省長) | Chief Counselor of the Headquarters, Acting Generalissimo and Governor of Guangdong [13]
12 Mar 1925 - 1 Jul 1925 Hú Hànmín (胡漢民) [14]

[1] Resignation from the office of the Generalissimo (dated 4 May 1918) was submitted to the extraordinary session of the Congress (Guóhuì fēicháng huìy | 國會非常會議) on 4 May 1918, pending acceptance which was never voted. Sūn Wén published a notice on termination of functions of the Generalissimo on the day of his departure from Guangdong on 21 May 1918.
[2] The Military Government was dissolved on 24 Oct 1924 by the directors residing in Gungzhou (Cén Chūnxuàn et al.). The directors staying outside the seat of government (Sūn Wén, Táng Shàoyí, Wǔ Tíngfāng) refused to recognise the dissolution.
[3] The directors of government affairs were elected by the extraordinary session of the Congress (Guóhuì fēicháng huìy | 國會非常會議) on 20 May 1918. They assumed the functions of office in random order (Wǔ Tíngfāng and Lín Bǎoyì on 29 May 1918, Lù Róngtíng on 2 Jun 1918, Táng Jìyāo on 19 Jun 1918, Cén Chūnxuàn on 4 Jul 1918). When the majority of the directors entered office, an official proclamation on the establishment of the Military Government was issued on 5 Jul 1918.
[4] Sūn Wén and Táng Shàoyí (唐紹儀) were elected on 20 May 1918, accepted the election but never assumed office and were represented by proxies. Xióng Kèwǔ (熊克武) and Liú Xiǎnshì (劉顯世) were elected on 4 May 1920 but never assumed office.
[5] Wēn Zōngyáo was elected on 4 May 1920 and assumed the functions of office on 7 May 1920.
[6] Cén Chūnxuàn was elected Presiding Director of Government Affairs at the meeting of directors on 19 Aug 1918 and took office 21 Aug 1921.
[7] Sūn Wén, Táng Shàoyí, Wǔ Tíngfāng and a representative of Táng Jìyāo proclaimed the restoration of the Military Government in Guangzhou 29 Nov 1921.
[8] Táng Jìyāo was absent from Guangzhou to 2 Apr 1921 when he assumed office.
[9] A law titled "Principles for the Organisation of the Government of the Republic of China" (中華民國政府組織大綱) approved on 7 Apr 1921 provided for election of a President (Dàzǒngtǒng | 大總統). The office was colloquially referred to in the literature as "extraordinary president" (fēicháng dàzǒngtǒng | 非常大總統).
[10] Simultaneously held the office of the Generalissimo of the Army and Navy of the Republic of China (Zhōnghuá mínguó lù hǎi jūn dàyuánshuài | 中華民國陸海軍大元帥).
[11] Ceased to exercise the functions of office after he was compelled to depart from Guangzhou (9 Aug 1922) following a coup.
[12] Sūn Wén arrived to Guangzhou 21 Feb 1923, re-assuming the functions of the Generalissimo. He did not formally resign the office of President, but hesitated to resume the functions of this office as it could affect the negotiations with the government in Beijing on unification of the country.
[13] Also in official use: Dàilǐ liù hǎi jūn dàyuánshuài | 代理陸海軍大元帥 (Acting Generalissimo of the Army and Navy), frequently contracted to Dàilǐ dàyuánshuài | 代理大元帥, Dài dàyuánshuài | 代大元帥, Dài shuài | 代帥.
[14] Hú Hànmín was appointed to exercise the functions of the Generalissimo by an order dated 1 Jun 1923. He intermittently acted for Sūn Wén during his absences from Guangdong, including a period (13 Nov 1924 - 12 Mar 1925) preceding the latter's death in Beijing (12 Mar 1925) and during the vacancy in the office of Generalissimo (12 Mar 1925 - 1 Jul 1925).
Last updated on: 04 Apr 2020 10:00:20