China: Military Government (Guangzhou): 1917-1925

Hǎi-lùjūn dàyuánshuài (海陸軍大元帥) | Grand Marshal of the Navy and Army
10 Sep 1917 - 21 May 1918 Sūn Wén (孫文) [1]
   
Zhōnghuá mínguó jūn zhèngfǔ (中華民國軍政府) | Military Government of the Republic of China [2]
Zhèngwù zǒngcái (政務總裁) | Director-General of Government Affairs [3][4]
5 Jul 1918 - 24 Oct 1920 Táng Jìyāo (唐繼堯)
5 Jul 1918 - 4 May 1920 Wǔ Tíngfāng (伍廷芳) [5]
5 Jul 1918 - 24 Oct 1920 Lín Bǎoyì (林葆懌)
5 Jul 1918 - 24 Oct 1920 Lù Róngtíng (陸榮廷)
5 Jul 1918 - 24 Oct 1920 Cén Chūnxuàn (岑春煊)
7 May 1920 - 24 Oct 1920 Wēn Zōngyáo (溫宗堯) [5]
Zhèngwù zǒngcái zhǔxí (政務總裁主席) | Presiding Director-General of Government Affairs [6]
21 Aug 1918 - 24 Oct 1920 Cén Chūnxuàn (岑春煊)
   
Zhōnghuá mínguó jūn zhèngfǔ (中華民國軍政府) | Military Government of the Republic of China [7]
Zhèngwù zǒngcái (政務總裁) | Director-General of Government Affairs
29 Nov 1920 - 5 May 1921 Táng Shàoyí (唐紹儀)
29 Nov 1920 - 5 May 1921 Sūn Wén (孫文) (x)
29 Nov 1920 - 5 May 1921 Wǔ Tíngfāng (伍廷芳) (x)
29 Nov 1920 - 5 May 1921 Táng Jìyāo (唐繼堯) (x) [8]
Dàzǒngtǒng (大總統) | President [9][10]
5 May 1921 - 9 Aug 1922 Sūn Wén (孫文) (x) [11]
   
Zhōnghuá mínguó lù-hǎijūn dàyuánshuài (中華民國陸海軍大元帥) | Grand Marshal of the Army and Navy of the Republic of China
21 Feb 1923 - 12 Mar 1925 Sūn Wén (孫文) (x) [12]
Dàběnyíng zǒngcānyì dàixíng dàyuánshuài zhíquán jiān Guǎngdōng shěngzhǎng (大本營總參議代行大元帥職權兼廣東省長) | Chief Counselor of the Headquarters acting as Grand Marshal, Governor of Guangdong [13]
12 Mar 1925 - 1 Jul 1925 Hú Hànmín (胡漢民) [14]

[1] Resignation from the office of the Grand Marshal (dated 4 May 1918) was submitted to the extraordinary session of the Congress (Guóhuì fēicháng huìyì | 國會非常會議) on 7 May 1918, pending the acceptance which was never voted. Sūn Wén published a notice on termination of functions of the Grand Marshal on the day of his departure from Guangdong on 21 May 1918.
[2] The Military Government was dissolved on 24 Oct 1920 by the directors-general residing in Guangzhou (Cén Chūnxuàn et al.). The directors-general staying outside the seat of government (Sūn Wén, Táng Shàoyí, Wǔ Tíngfāng) refused to recognise the dissolution.
[3] The directors-general of government affairs were elected by the extraordinary session of the Congress (Guóhuì fēicháng huìyì | 國會非常會議) on 20 May 1918. They assumed the functions of office in the following order: Wǔ Tíngfāng and Lín Bǎoyì on 28 May 1918, Lù Róngtíng on 2 Jun 1918, Táng Jìyāo on 19 Jun 1918, Cén Chūnxuàn on 4 Jul 1918. When the majority of the directors-general entered office, an official proclamation on the establishment of the Military Government was issued on 5 Jul 1918.
[4] Táng Shàoyí (唐紹儀) and Sūn Wén were elected on 20 May 1918, but did not assume their offices and were represented by proxies.
[5] Xióng Kèwǔ (熊克武), Wēn Zōngyáo (溫宗堯) and Liú Xiǎnshì (劉顯世) were elected on 4 May 1920 in replacement of Táng Shàoyí, Sūn Wén and Wǔ Tíngfāng. Wēn Zōngyáo took office on 7 May 1920. Xióng Kèwǔ and Liú Xiǎnshì did not assume their offices.
[6] Cén Chūnxuàn was elected Presiding Director-General of Government Affairs at the meeting of directors on 19 Aug 1918 and took office 21 Aug 1918.
[7] Sūn Wén, Táng Shàoyí, Wǔ Tíngfāng and a representative of Táng Jìyāo proclaimed the restoration of the Military Government in Guangzhou 29 Nov 1920.
[8] Táng Jìyāo was absent from Guangzhou to 2 Apr 1921 when he assumed office.
[9] Organizational Outline of the Government of the Republic of China (Zhōnghuá mínguó zhèngfǔ zǔzhī dàgāng | 中華民國政府組織大綱) was approved on 7 Apr 1921 and provided for election of a President (Dàzǒngtǒng | 大總統). The office was colloquially referred to in the literature as "extraordinary president" (fēicháng dàzǒngtǒng | 非常大總統).
[10] Simultaneously held the office of the Grand Marshal of the Army and Navy of the Republic of China (Zhōnghuá mínguó lù-hǎijūn dàyuánshuài | 中華民國陸海軍大元帥).
[11] Following a coup d'état (16 Jun 1922), Sūn Wén lost control of the seat of government and took refuge upon a warship in Guangzhou harbour; directed military operations until 9 Aug 1922 when he departed from Guangdong.
[12] Sūn Wén arrived to Guangzhou 21 Feb 1923, re-assuming the functions of the Grand Marshal. He did not formally resign the office of President, but hesitated to resume the functions of this office as it could have affected the negotiations with the government in Beijing on unification of the country.
[13] Also in official use: Dàilǐ lù-hǎijūn dàyuánshuài | 代理陸海軍大元帥 (Acting Grand Marshal of the Army and Navy), frequently contracted to Dàilǐ dàyuánshuài | 代理大元帥, Dài dàyuánshuài | 代大元帥, Dài shuài | 代帥.
[14] Hú Hànmín was appointed to exercise the functions of the Grand Marshal by an order dated 1 Jun 1923. He intermittently acted for Sūn Wén during his absences from Guangdong, including a period (13 Nov 1924 - 12 Mar 1925) preceding the latter's death in Beijing (12 Mar 1925) and during the vacancy in the office of Grand Marshal (12 Mar 1925 - 1 Jul 1925).
Last updated on: 15 Sep 2020 11:46:36