China: Heads of State (Beijing): 1912-1928

Línshí dàzǒngtǒng (臨時大總統) | Provisional President
10 Mar 1912 - 10 Oct 1913 Yuán Shìkǎi (袁世凱) [1]
Dàzǒngtǒng (大總統) | President
10 Oct 1913 - 6 Jun 1916 Yuán Shìkǎi (袁世凱) (x) [2]
6 Jun 1916 - 1 Jul 1917 Lí Yuánhóng (黎元洪) [3][4]
7 Jul 1917 - 10 Oct 1918 Féng Guózhāng (馮國璋) [5]
10 Oct 1918 - 2 Jun 1922 Xú Shìchāng (徐世昌)
Guówùyuàn: Guówù zǒnglǐ (國務院: 國務總理) | State Council: Prime Minister (ex officio)
2 Jun 1922 - 11 Jun 1922 Zhōu Zìqí (周自齊) [6]
Dàzǒngtǒng (大總統) | President
11 Jun 1922 - 13 Jun 1923 Lí Yuánhóng (黎元洪) (x) [7]
Guówùyuàn (國務院) | State Council (ex officio) [8]
13 Jun 1923 - 10 Oct 1923  
Dàzǒngtǒng (大總統) | President
10 Oct 1923 - 2 Nov 1924 Cáo Kūn (曹錕)
Guówùyuàn: Guówù zǒnglǐ (國務院: 國務總理) | State Council: Prime Minister (ex officio)
2 Nov 1924 - 24 Nov 1924 Huáng Fú (黃郛) [6]
Zhōnghuá mínguó línshí zhízhèng (中華民國臨時執政) | Provisional Chief Executive of the Republic of China
24 Nov 1924 - 20 Apr 1926 Duàn Qíruì (段祺瑞) [9]
Guówùyuàn: Guówù zǒnglǐ (國務院: 國務總理) | State Council: Prime Minister (ex officio)
20 Apr 1926 - 13 May 1926 Hú Wéidé (胡惟德) [6]
13 May 1926 - 22 Jun 1926 Yán Huìqìng (顏惠慶)
22 Jun 1926 - 1 Oct 1926 Dù Xíguī (杜錫珪) [6]
1 Oct 1926 - 18 Jun 1927 Gù Wéijūn (顧維鈞) [6][10]
Lù hǎi jūn dàyuánshuài (陸海軍大元帥) | Grand Marshal of the Army and Navy
18 Jun 1927 - 4 Jun 1928 Zhāng Zuòlín (張作霖) [11]

[1] Elected at the session of the Senate (Cānyìyuàn | 參議院) held in Nanjing 15 Feb 1912. Took oath of office at a public ceremony in Beijing 10 Mar 1912.
[2] Assumed imperial dignity by a presidential order dated 12 Dec 1915, introduced an imperial era (Hóngxiàn | 洪憲), but was never installed as emperor; rescinded the assumption of imperial dignity on 22 Mar 1916.
[3] After the death of Yuán Shìkǎi (6 Jun 1916), the functions of President devolved on Vice President Lí Yuánhóng who was installed at a public ceremony 7 Jun 1916. Lí Yuánhóng ceased to exercise the functions of office following the proclamation of restoration of monarchy issued 1 Jun 1917 at Beijing and took refuge in a foreign legation.
[4] The resignation of Lí Yuánhóng was never formally submitted. His letter of endorsement of Féng Guózhāng for holding the office of President (published in Government Gazette (Beijing), No. 539, 17 Jul 1917, pp. 17-18) is sometimes referred to as his "resignation".
[5] Assumed the functions of President at a public ceremony held in Nanjing 7 Jul 1917 (official announcement dated 6 Jul 1917). Arrived to Beijing 1 Aug 1917 and continued to exercise the functions of President for the remainder of term of Lí Yuánhóng (to 10 Oct 1918) who was deemed to have retired.
[6] Held an acting appointment to exercise the functions of Prime Minister, not affecting the style in office as found in official use.
[7] Left Beijing 13 Jun 1923, moving to Tianjin and next to Shanghai. Lí Yuánhóng maintained that he never resigned the office.
[8] The State Council assumed the functions of office of President (13 Jun 1923) as confirmed by a resolution of the joint session of the Senate and House of Representatives 17 Jun 1923. A resolution of the State Council of 13 Jun 1923 entrusted the interior minister (Gāo Língwèi | 高凌霨) to sign the presidential orders during the period when the office of President, Prime Minister and foreign affairs minister were de facto vacant. After the assumption of office by the foreign affairs minister (Gù Wéijūn | 顧維鈞) on 23 Jul 1923, the latter took over as a principal signatory.
[9] Prevented from exercising the functions of office and forced to take refuge in a foreign legation between 10 Apr 1926 and 15 Apr 1926.
[10] The order of appointment is dated 1 Oct 1926; assumed the functions of office 5 Oct 1926.
[11] Left Beijing 3 Jun 1928 and died after an assassination attempt en route to Shenyang (Mukden) 4 Jun 1928.
Last updated on: 05 May 2020 17:25:50