China: Heads of State (Beijing): 1912-1928

Quánquán zǔzhī línshí gònghé zhèngfǔ (全權組織臨時共和政府) | Plenipotentiary for Organizing a Provisional Republican Government [1]
13 Feb 1912 - 15 Feb 1912 Yuán Shìkǎi (袁世凱)
Línshí dàzǒngtǒng (臨時大總統) | Provisional President [1]
15 Feb 1912 - 10 Oct 1913 Yuán Shìkǎi (袁世凱) (x)
Dàzǒngtǒng (大總統) | President
10 Oct 1913 - 6 Jun 1916 Yuán Shìkǎi (袁世凱) (x) [2]
6 Jun 1916 - 6 Jul 1917 Lí Yuánhóng (黎元洪) [3][4][5]
6 Jul 1917 - 10 Oct 1918 Féng Guózhāng (馮國璋) [6]
10 Oct 1918 - 2 Jun 1922 Xú Shìchāng (徐世昌)
Guówùyuàn: Guówù zǒnglǐ (國務院: 國務總理) | State Council: Prime Minister (ex officio)
2 Jun 1922 - 11 Jun 1922 Zhōu Zìqí (周自齊)
Dàzǒngtǒng (大總統) | President
11 Jun 1922 - 13 Jun 1923 Lí Yuánhóng (黎元洪) (x) [7]
Guówùyuàn (國務院) | State Council (ex officio) [8]
13 Jun 1923 - 10 Oct 1923  
Dàzǒngtǒng (大總統) | President
10 Oct 1923 - 2 Nov 1924 Cáo Kūn (曹錕)
Guówùyuàn: Guówù zǒnglǐ (國務院: 國務總理) | State Council: Prime Minister (ex officio)
2 Nov 1924 - 24 Nov 1924 Huáng Fú (黃郛)
Zhōnghuá mínguó línshí zhízhèng (中華民國臨時執政) | Provisional Chief Executive of the Republic of China
24 Nov 1924 - 20 Apr 1926 Duàn Qíruì (段祺瑞) [9]
Guówùyuàn: Guówù zǒnglǐ (國務院: 國務總理) | State Council: Prime Minister (ex officio)
20 Apr 1926 - 13 May 1926 office vacant [10]
13 May 1926 - 23 Jun 1926 Yán Huìqìng (顏惠慶)
23 Jun 1926 - 5 Oct 1926 Dù Xíguī (杜錫珪)
5 Oct 1926 - 18 Jun 1927 Gù Wéijūn (顧維鈞)
Lù-hǎijūn dàyuánshuài (陸海軍大元帥) | Grand Marshal of the Army and Navy
18 Jun 1927 - 3 Jun 1928 Zhāng Zuòlín (張作霖) [11]

[1] An imperial edict proclaiming the abdication of the emperor (12 Feb 1912) also gave Yuán Shìkǎi full authority to organize a provisional republican government. He assumed the office by issuing a notice on 13 Feb 1912. After his election as Provisional President (Línshí dàzǒngtǒng | 臨時大總統) at the session of the Senate (Cānyìyuàn | 參議院) held in Nanjing 15 Feb 1912, he also began to exercise the function of this office before his formal inauguration which took place in Beijing on 10 Mar 1912.
[2] Accepted a proposal to become the emperor by a presidential order dated 12 Dec 1915, and initiated preparations for enthronement; introduced an imperial era (Hóngxiàn | 洪憲) by an order dated 31 Dec 1915; cancelled all preparations on 22 Mar 1916.
[3] After the death of Yuán Shìkǎi (6 Jun 1916), the functions of President devolved on Vice President Lí Yuánhóng who was installed at a public ceremony 7 Jun 1916.
[4] Prevented from exercising the functions of office on 1 Jul 1917 (restoration of monarchy); moved to a foreign legation in Beijing (2 Jul 1917) where he resumed his functions, instructing the Vice President (Féng Guózhāng) to take over.
[5] The resignation of Lí Yuánhóng was never formally submitted. His letter of endorsement of Féng Guózhāng for holding the office of President (published in Government Gazette (Beijing), No. 539, 17 Jul 1917, pp. 17-18) is sometimes referred to as his "resignation".
[6] Assumed the functions of President by an official announcement dated 6 Jul 1917 (public ceremony held in Nanjing 7 Jul 1917). Arrived to Beijing 1 Aug 1917 and continued to exercise the functions of President for the remainder of term of Lí Yuánhóng (to 10 Oct 1918) who was deemed to have retired.
[7] Left Beijing 13 Jun 1923, moving to Tianjin and next to Shanghai. Lí Yuánhóng maintained that he never resigned the office.
[8] The State Council assumed the functions of office of President (13 Jun 1923) as confirmed by a resolution of the joint session of the Senate and House of Representatives 17 Jun 1923. A resolution of the State Council of 13 Jun 1923 entrusted the interior minister (Gāo Língwèi | 高凌霨) to sign the presidential orders during the period when the office of President was de facto vacant, while both Prime Minister and foreign affairs minister were absent from Beijing. After the assumption of office by the foreign affairs minister (Gù Wéijūn | 顧維鈞) on 23 Jul 1923, the latter took over as a principal signatory.
[9] Prevented from exercising the functions of office and forced to take refuge in a foreign legation between 10 Apr 1926 and 15 Apr 1926.
[10] Hú Wéidé (胡惟德) was appointed on 20 Apr 1926, but declined to serve as head of government, exercising only his ministerial functions (foreign minister).
[11] Left Beijing 3 Jun 1928 and died after an assassination attempt en route to Shenyang (Mukden) 4 Jun 1928.
Last updated on: 27 Sep 2020 21:34:31