China: Heads of Government (Beijing): 1912-1928

The official style found as a countersignature to the presidential order is not affected by the nature of appointment, i.e. both prime minister and acting prime minister signed as Guówù zǒnglǐ (國務總理).
Guówù zǒnglǐ (國務總理) | Prime Minister
13 Mar 1912 - 29 Jun 1912 Táng Shàoyí (唐紹儀)
  appointed (substantive): 13 Mar 1912; leave granted: 17 Jun 1912; discharged: 27 Jun 1912
29 Jun 1912 - 25 Sep 1912 Lù Zhēngxiáng (陸徵祥)
  appointed (acting): 17 Jun 1912; took office: 17 Jun 1912 (acting for Táng Shàoyí 17 Jun 1912 - 29 Jun 1912); appointed (substantive): 29 Jun 1912; leave granted: 20 Aug 1912; discharged: 22 Sep 1912
25 Sep 1912 - 16 Jul 1913 Zhào Bǐngjūn (趙秉鈞)
  appointed (acting): 20 Aug 1912 (acting for Lù Zhēngxiáng 20 Aug 1912 - 25 Sep 1912); appointed (substantive): 25 Sep 1912; discharged: 16 Jul 1913
16 Jul 1913 -26 Aug 1913 Duàn Qíruì (段祺瑞) [1]
  appointed (acting): 1 May 1913; took office: 2 May 1913 (acting for Zhào Bǐngjūn 2 May 1913 - 16 Jul 1913); appointed (acting): 19 Jul 1913 (pending the taking office by Xióng Xīlíng 31 Jul 1913 - 26 Aug 1913)
26 Aug 1913 - 14 Feb 1914 Xióng Xīlíng (熊希齡)
  appointed (substantive): 31 Jul 1913; took office: 26 Aug 1913; discharged: 12 Feb 1914
14 Feb 1914 - 2 May 1914 Sūn Bǎoqí (孫寶琦)
  appointed (acting): 12 Feb 1914; took office: 14 Feb 1914
Guówù qīng (國務卿) | Secretary of State
2 May 1914 - 22 Dec 1915 Xú Shìchāng (徐世昌)
  appointed (substantive): 1 May 1914; took office: 2 May 1914; leave granted: 27 Oct 1915
22 Dec 1915 - 22 Mar 1916 Lù Zhēngxiáng (陸徵祥) (x)
  appointed (acting): 27 Oct 1915; took office: 28 Oct 1915 (acting for Xú Shìchāng 28 Oct 1915 - 22 Dec 1915); appointed (substantive): 21 Dec 1915; took office: 22 Dec 1915; discharged: 21 Mar 1916
22 Mar 1916 - 23 Apr 1916 Xú Shìchāng (徐世昌) (x)
  appointed (substantive): 21 Mar 1916; took office: 22 Mar 1916; discharged: 22 Apr 1916
23 Apr 1916 - 30 Jun 1916 Duàn Qíruì (段祺瑞) (x)
  appointed (substantive): 22 Apr 1916; took office: 23 Apr 1916
Guówù zǒnglǐ (國務總理) | Prime Minister
30 Jun 1916 - 24 May 1917 Duàn Qíruì (段祺瑞) (x)
  appointed (substantive): 29 Jun 1916; took office: 30 Jun 1916; discharged: 23 May 1917
24 May 1917 - 13 Jun 1917 Wǔ Tíngfāng (伍廷芳)
  appointed (acting): 23 May 1917; took office: 24 May 1917 (pending the taking office by Lǐ Jīngxī 28 May 1917 - 13 Jun 1917); discharged: 12 Jun 1917
13 Jun 1917 - 24 Jun 1917 Jiāng Cháozōng (江朝宗)
  appointed (acting): 12 Jun 1917; took office: 13 Jun 1917 (pending the taking office by Lǐ Jīngxī 13 Jun 1917 - 24 Jun 1917)
24 Jun 1917 - 5 Jul 1917 Lǐ Jīngxī (李經羲)
  appointed (substantive): 28 May 1917; took office: 24 Jun 1917; discharged: 2 Jul 1917
5 Jul 1917 - 23 Nov 1917 Duàn Qíruì (段祺瑞) (x)
  appointed (substantive): 2 Jul 1917; took office: 5 Jul 1917; discharged: 22 Nov 1917
23 Nov 1917 - 2 Dec 1917 Wāng Dàxiè (汪大燮)
  appointed (acting): 22 Nov 1917; took office: 23 Nov 1917; discharged: 30 Nov 1917
2 Dec 1917 - 24 Mar 1918 Wàng Shìzhēn (王士珍)
  appointed (acting): 30 Nov 1917; took office: 2 Dec 1917; leave granted: 20 Feb 1918; discharged: 23 Mar 1918
  Qián Néngxùn (錢能訓)
  appointed (acting): 20 Feb 1918; took office: 21 Feb 1918 (acting for Wàng Shìzhēn 21 Feb 1918 - 24 Mar 1918)
24 Mar 1918 - 11 Oct 1918 Duàn Qíruì (段祺瑞) (x)
  appointed (substantive): 23 Mar 1918; took office: 24 Mar 1918; discharged: 10 Oct 1918
11 Oct 1918 - 14 Jun 1919 Qián Néngxùn (錢能訓) (x)
  appointed (acting): 10 Oct 1918; took office: 11 Oct 1918; appointed (substantive): 20 Dec 1918; took office: 21 Dec 1918; discharged: 13 Jun 1919
14 Jun 1919 - 25 Sep 1919 Gōng Xīnzhàn (龔心湛)
  appointed (acting): 13 Jun 1919; took office: 14 Jun 1919; discharged: 24 Sep 1919
25 Sep 1919 - 2 Jul 1920 Jìn Yúnpéng (靳雲鵬)
  appointed (acting): 24 Sep 1919; took office: 25 Sep 1919; appointed (substantive): 5 Nov 1919; took office: 5 Nov 1919; discharged: 2 Jul 1920
2 Jul 1920 - 10 Aug 1920 Sà Zhènbīng (薩鎮冰)
  appointed (acting): 14 May 1920; took office: 14 May 1920 (acting for Jìn Yúnpéng 14 May 1920 - 2 Jul 1920)
10 Aug 1920 - 19 Dec 1921 Jìn Yúnpéng (靳雲鵬) (x)
  appointed (acting): 9 Aug 1920; took office: 10 Aug 1920; discharged: 14 May 1921; appointed (substantive): 14 May 1921; took office: 14 May 1921; discharged: 18 Dec 1921
19 Dec 1921 - 25 Dec 1921 Yán Huìqìng (顏惠慶)
  appointed (acting): 18 Dec 1921; took office: 19 Dec 1921
25 Dec 1921 - 5 May 1922 Liáng Shìyí (梁士詒)
  appointed (substantive): 24 Dec 1921; took office: 25 Dec 1921; discharged: 5 May 1922
  Yán Huìqìng (顏惠慶) (x)
  appointed (acting): 25 Jan 1921; took office: 27 Jan 1921 (acting for Liáng Shìyí 27 Jan 1922 - 11 Apr 1922); discharged: 8 Apr 1922
5 May 1922 - 12 Jun 1922 Zhōu Zìqí (周自齊)
  appointed (acting): 8 Apr 1922; took office: 11 Apr 1922 (acting for Liáng Shìyí 11 Apr 1922 - 5 May 1922); discharged: 11 Jun 1922
12 Jun 1922 - 8 Aug 1922 Yán Huìqìng (顏惠慶) (x)
  appointed (acting): 11 Jun 1922; took office: 12 Jun 1922; discharged: 5 Aug 1922
8 Aug 1922 - 30 Nov 1922 Wáng Chǒnghuì (王寵惠)
  appointed (acting): 31 Jul 1922; appointed (acting): 5 Aug 1922; took office: 8 Aug 1922 (acting for Táng Shàoyí (唐紹儀) who was appointed on 5 Aug 1922 but never took office and was discharged on 19 Sep 1922); discharged: 19 Sep 1922; appointed (acting): 19 Sep 1922; discharged: 29 Nov 1922
30 Nov 1922 - 14 Dec 1922 Wāng Dàxiè (汪大燮) (x)
  appointed (acting): 29 Nov 1922; took office: 30 Nov 1922; discharged: 11 Dec 1922
14 Dec 1922 - 5 Jan 1923 Wáng Zhèngtíng (王正廷)
  appointed (acting): 11 Dec 1922; took office: 14 Dec 1922; discharged: 4 Jan 1923
5 Jan 1923 - 15 Jan 1924 Zhāng Shàozēng (張紹曾) [2]
  appointed (substantive): 4 Jan 1923; took office: 5 Jan 1923; discharged: 13 Jun 1923 (presidential order of 13 Jun 1923 is proclaimed null and void on 17 Jun 1923 by the Cabinet acting on resolutions of the House of Representatives and Senate); discharged: 12 Jan 1924
  Gāo Língwèi (高凌霨)
  appointed (acting): 12 Oct 1923; took office: 12 Oct 1923 (acting for Zhāng Shàozēng 12 Oct 1923 - 15 Jan 1924); discharged: 12 Jan 1924
15 Jan 1924 - 4 Jul 1924 Sūn Bǎoqí (孫寶琦) (x)
  appointed (substantive): 12 Jan 1924; took office: 15 Jan 1924; discharged: 2 Jul 1924
4 Jul 1924 - 16 Sep 1924 Gù Wéijūn (顧維鈞)
  appointed (acting): 2 Jul 1924; took office: 4 Jul 1924; discharged: 14 Sep 1924
16 Sep 1924 - 1 Nov 1924 Yán Huìqìng (顏惠慶) (x)
  appointed (substantive): 14 Sep 1924; took office: 16 Sep 1924; discharged: 31 Oct 1924
1 Nov 1924 - 24 Nov 1924 Huáng Fú (黃郛)
  appointed (acting): 31 Oct 1924; took office: 1 Nov 1924
24 Nov 1924 - 28 Dec 1925 office abolished
28 Dec 1925 - 6 Mar 1926 Xǔ Shìyīng (許世英)
  appointed (substantive): 26 Dec 1925; took office: 28 Dec 1925; discharged: 4 Mar 1926
  Jiǎ Déyào (賈德耀)
  appointed (acting): 15 Feb 1926; took office: 19 Feb 1926 (acting for Xǔ Shìyīng 19 Feb 1926 - 6 Mar 1926)
6 Mar 1926 - 20 Apr 1926 Jiǎ Déyào (賈德耀)
  appointed (substantive): 4 Mar 1926; took office: 6 Mar 1926; discharged: 20 Apr 1926
20 Apr 1926 - 13 May 1926 office vacant [3]
13 May 1926 - 23 Jun 1926 Yán Huìqìng (顏惠慶) (x)
  took office: 13 Mar 1926; discharged: 22 Jun 1926
23 Jun 1926 - 5 Oct 1926 Dù Xíguī (杜錫珪)
  appointed (acting): 22 Jun 1926; took office: 23 Jun 1926; discharged: 1 Oct 1926
5 Oct 1926 - 20 Jun 1927 Gù Wéijūn (顧維鈞) (x)
  appointed (acting): 1 Oct 1926; took office: 5 Oct 1926
20 Jun 1927 - 3 Jun 1928 Pān Fù (潘復) [4]
  appointed (substantive): 18 Jun 1927; took office: 20 Jun 1927

[1] Zhū Qǐqián (朱啟鈐) was appointed on 17 Jul 1913, but did not take office.
[2] Guówù zǒnglǐ (國務總理) (in dissidence in Tianjin to 9 Sep 1923)
  13 Jun 1923 - 9 Sep 1923 Lǐ Gēnyuán (李根源)
[3] Hú Wéidé (胡惟德) was appointed on 20 Apr 1926, but declined to serve as head of government, exercising only his ministerial functions (foreign minister).
[4] Left Beijing on 3 Jun 1928.
Last updated on: 03 Sep 2020 09:33:51