João VI (Dom João)

João VI (Dom João)

b. 13 May 1767, Lisbon, Portugal
d. 10 Mar 1826, Lisbon, Portugal

Title: Por Graça de Deus Príncipe Regente do Reino Unido de Portugal, e do Brasil e Algarves de aquém e de além-mar em África, Senhor de Guiné e da Conquista, Navegação e Comércio da Etiópia, Arábia, Pérsia, e da Índia (By the Grace of God, Prince Regent of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil, and Algarves, of either side of the sea in Africa, Lord of Guinea and of the Conquest, Navigation, and Commerce of Ethiopia, Arabia, Persia and India)
Term: 16 Dec 1815 - 20 Mar 1816
Chronology: 16 Dec 1815, Brazil is raised to the status of a kingdom (Reino do Brasil) as part of a newly named United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil, and Algarves by decree of the Prince Regent (title of prince regent changed according to the same decree)
  20 Mar 1816, succeeded his mother, Maria I
Title: Por Graça de Deus Rei do Reino Unido de Portugal, e do Brasil, e Algarves de aquém e de além-mar em África, Senhor de Guiné e da Conquista, Navegação e Comércio da Etiópia, Arábia, Pérsia, e da Índia (By the Grace of God, King of the United Kingdom of Portugal and Brazil and Algarves, and of either side of the sea in Africa, Lord of Guinea and of the Conquest, Navigation, and Commerce of Ethiopia, Arabia, Persia and India) [to 26 Feb 1821, 3 Jun 1823 - 15 Nov 1825]
  Por Graça de Deus e Pela Constituição da monarquia, Rei do Reino-Unido de Portugal, Brasil e Algarve de aquém e de além-mar em África, Senhor de Guiné e da Conquista, Navegação e Comércio da Etiópia, Arábia, Pérsia, e da Índia (By the Grace of God and According to the Constitution of the Monarchy, King of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and Algarve, and of either side of the sea in Africa, Lord of Guinea and of the Conquest, Navigation, and Commerce of Ethiopia, Arabia, Persia and India) [26 Feb 1821 - 3 Jun 1823]
  Por Graça de Deus Imperador do Brasil e Rei de Portugal e Algarves de aquém e de além-mar em África, Senhor de Guiné e da Conquista, Navegação e Comércio da Etiópia, Arábia, Pérsia, e da Índia (By the Grace of God, Emperor of Brazil and King of Portugal and Algarves, and of either side of the sea in Africa, Lord of Guinea and of the Conquest, Navigation, and Commerce of Ethiopia, Arabia, Persia and India) [15 Nov 1825 - 10 Mar 1826]
Term: 20 Mar 1816 - 10 Mar 1826
  6 Feb 1818, crowned, Rio de Janeiro
  7 Sep 1822, independence of Brazil proclaimed (not recognized by João VI until 13 May 1825/15 Nov 1825)
  26 Feb 1821, royal style changed after taking the oath of allegiance to the Constitution of 1821
  3 Jun 1823, reverted to using previous royal style with suspension of the Constitution of 1821
  13 May 1825, issued royal rescript recognizing Brazil as an empire and assuming for himself and his successors the style imperador do Brasil e rei de Portugal e Algarves
  10 Mar 1826, died
Names/titles: Original name: João Maria José Francisco Xavier de Paula Luís Antonio Domingos Rafael; Príncipe Regente de Portugal e dos Algarves de aquém e de além-mar em África, Senhor de Guiné e da Conquista, Navegação e Comércio da Etiópia, Arábia, Pérsia, e da Índia (Prince Regent of Portugal and the Algarves, and of either side of the sea in Africa, Lord of Guinea and of the Conquest, Navigation, and Commerce of Ethiopia, Arabia, Persia and India) as Dom João [15 Jul 1799 - 16 Dec 1815]
Biography:

Dom João was the third son of Prince Pedro (later King Pedro III) and Crown Princess Maria da Glória (later Queen Maria I). He married Carlota Joaquina (27 Mar 1785 by proxy), eldest daughter of Carlos IV of Spain, and became the heir apparent of Portugal with the style of Prince of Brazil (Príncipe do Brasil) after the death of his elder surviving brother, José Francisco Xavier de Paula (11 Sep 1788). After his mother, Queen Maria I, suffered a mental collapse (1 Feb 1792), João, pressed by the ministers, consented to perform the royal functions on behalf of and in the name of the queen (10 Feb 1792). After fruitless attempts to cure Maria's progressing illness, João formally assumed the style and office of regent (15 Jul 1799). João supported his father-in-law, Carlos IV, against revolutionary France. In November 1807 the army of Napoléon I invaded Portugal and the Portuguese royal court sailed to Brazil. On 23 Jan 1808 João arrived at Rio de Janeiro and installed the royal government for Portugal and Brazil. In 1815 João elevated Brazil to the status of kingdom and on 20 Mar 1816 succeeded to the throne of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil, and Algarves after the death of Maria I. The installation of constitutional government in Portugal in 1820 required the return of João VI to Portugal, where he swore fidelity to the Constitution (1 Oct 1822). In 1823 João suspended the Constitution and dissolved the Côrtes. He refused to recognize the independence of Brazil, but in 1825 reached reconciliation with his son, Emperor Pedro I of Brazil. João elevated Brazil to the rank of empire by royal rescript reserving for himself a nominal title of Emperor of Brazil (13 May 1825). The treaty between Portugal and Brazil settling the process of recognition of the new empire was concluded on 29 Aug 1825 and ratified by João VI on 15 Nov 1825. On 6 Mar 1826, being on his deathbed, João VI instituted a Council of Regency under the presidency of his daughter, Isabel Maria, and died four days later. [1]


[1] "Portugal: Dicionário Histórico, Corográfico, Heráldico, Biográfico, Bibliográfico, Numismático e Artístico", ed. by João Romano Torres.
  Image: portrait of King João VI by Jean-Baptiste Debret.
Last updated on: 09 Oct 2011 13:00:21