Brazil: Permanent Regency: 1831-1835

Membros da Regência Permanente
18 Jun 1831 - 12 Oct 1835 Francisco de Lima e Silva (president)
18 Jun 1831 - 12 Oct 1835 José da Costa Carvalho
18 Jun 1831 - 20 Sep 1835 João Bráulio Muniz
 
History:

The Permanent Regency (Regência Permanente) was established according to the Constitution of 1824 to govern Brazil during the minority of Emperor Pedro II. In an attempt to modify the political structure, the Regency initiated a number of reforms. It created the National Guard (18 Aug 1831) to suppress military revolts, approved the Criminal Code (23 Nov 1832) and introduced the institution of the justices of the peace to strengthen the federal government. The Regency dismissed and arrested the emperor's tutor, José Bonifácio de Andrada e Silva (1833), for political intrigues. Further changes in the national politics followed with the promulgation of the Additional Act amending the Constitution (12 Aug 1834). The act provided for election of a sole regent for a four-year term and provincial legislatures. In accordance with the Additional Act, the Regency held elections for sole Regent (April 1835; results announced 9 Oct 1835). At the time of the death of João Bráulio Muniz (20 Sep 1835), Costa Carvalho had retired without resigning and refused to rejoin Lima e Silva. The Senate voted to convene the General Assembly to elect a replacement for Muniz, but the Chamber of Deputies refused; thus Lima e Silva ruled as a sole regent de facto from 20 Sep 1835 to 12 Oct 1835. [1]

Elections:

Candidate Vote (17 Jun 1831) [2]
Francisco de Lima e Silva 81
José da Costa Carvalho 75
João Bráulio Muniz 49
Pedro de Araújo Lima 35
Antônio Carlos Ribeiro de Andrada Machado e Silva 27
Marquês de Caravelas 17
Nicolau Pereira de Campos Vergueiro 6
Diogo Antônio Feijó 3

[1] "A Political History of the Brazilian Regency 1831-1840", by Helen Katherine Reinhart, Thesis (University of Illinois, Urbana 1960).
[2] Dicionário do voto (2000)
Last updated on: 26 Jun 2009 02:56:28