Franz Joseph I.

Franz Joseph I.

b. 18 Aug 1830, Vienna
d. 21 Nov 1916, Vienna

Title: Von Gottes Gnaden, Kaiser von Österreich; König von Ungarn und Böhmen, König der Lombardei und Venedigs ("König der Lombardei und Venedigs" removed from 3 Oct 1866), von Dalmatien, Kroatien, Slavonien, Galizien, Lodomerien und Illyrien; König von Jerusalem, etc.; Erzherzog von Österreich, Großherzog von Toskana ("Großherzog von Toskana und Krakau" from 4 Mar 1849); Herzog von Lothringen, von Salzburg, von Steier, Kärnten, Krain ("... Krain und der Bukowina" from 4 Mar 1849); Großfürst von Siebenbürgen; Markgraf von Mähren; Herzog von Ober- und Niederschlesien, von Modena, Parma, Piacenza und Guastalla, von Auschwitz und Zator, von Teschen, Friaul, Ragusa und Zara; gefürsteter Graf von Habsburg, von Tyrol, von Kyburg, Görz und Gradisca; Fürst von Trient und Brixen; Markgraf von Ober- und Niederlausitz und in Istrien; Graf von Hohenembs, Feldkirch, Bregenz, Sonnenberg etc.; Herr von Triest, von Cattaro und auf der Windischen Mark ("Großwojwod der Wojwodschaft Serbien" added 18 Nov 1849 with subsequent addition of "etc. etc.")
(By the grace of God, Emperor of Austria; King of Hungary and Bohemia, King of Lombardy and Venice ("King of Lombardy and Venice" removed from 3 Oct 1866), of Dalmatia, Croatia, Slavonia, Galitzia, Lodomeria and Illyria; King of Jerusalem, etc.; Archduke of Austria, Grand Duke of Tuscany ("Grand Duke of Tuscany and Cracow" from 4 Mar 1849); Duke of Lorraine, Salzburg, of Styria, Carinthia, Carniola ("... Carniola and Bukovina" from 4 Mar 1849); Grand Prince of Transylvania; Margrave of Moravia; Duke of Upper and Lower Silesia, of Modena, Parma, Piacenza, and Guastalla, of Auschwitz [Oswiecim] and Zator, of Teschen [Czeszyn], Friuli, Ragusa [Dubrovnik] and Zara [Zadar]; princely Count of Habsburg, of Tyrol, of Kyburg, Gorizia and Gradisca; Prince of Trent [Trento] and Brixen [Bressanone]; Margrave of Upper and Lower Lusatia and in Istria; Count of Hohenembs, Feldkirch, Bregenz, Sonnenberg, etc.; Lord of Trieste, of Cattaro [Kotor], and in the Wendish Mark ("Grand Voivode of the Voivodeship of Serbia" added 18 Nov 1849 with subsequent addition of "etc. etc."))
Term: 2 Dec 1848 - 21 Nov 1916
Chronology: 2 Dec 1848, succeeded to the throne of Austria, Hungary etc. and proclaimed in accordance with the letter of abdication of his uncle, Ferdinand I. (dated 1 Dec 1848, Olomouc), public ceremony, Krönungssaale der Fuhrsterzbischöflichen Residenz, Olomouc, Moravia [1]
4 Mar 1849, imperial style changed ("Großherzog von ... Krakau", "Herzog von ... der Bukowina" added) in accordance with Art. 11 of the Constitution of 1849 promulgated by Kaiserliches Patent vom 4. März 1849, die Reichsverfassung für das Kaisertum Österreich enthaltend [2]
18 Nov 1849, imperial style changed ("Großwojwod der Wojwodschaft Serbien" added) in accordance with imperial patent creating the Voivodeship of Serbia entitled Kaiserliches Patent vom 18. November 1849 [3]
3 Oct 1866, imperial style changed ("König der Lombardei und Venedigs" removed) in accordance with peace treaty with King of Italy entitled Friedens-Tractat zwischen Seiner k. k. Apostolischen Majestät und Seiner Majestät dem Könige von Italien vom 3. October 1866 [4]
21 Nov 1916, died
Names/titles: Original name: Franz Joseph Karl (baptised 19 Aug 1830, Schloß Schönbrunn);
Other offices: Magyarország Apostoli Királya (Apostolic King of Hungary) as I. Ferenc József [2 Dec 1848 - 21 Nov 1916, continued as title holder in the period when he was absent and/or not recognised in Hungary]
Biography:
Son of Erzherzog Franz Karl and Sophie of Bavaria; educated by members of court with emphasis on military training; fled Vienna with family and court (14 Mar 1848) during Hungarian Revolution of 1848; fought in first wave of a battle at Santa Lucia in Italy (May 1848); fled from Vienna to Olmütz (6 Oct 1848); returned to Vienna for opening of the Reichstag (27 Nov 1848), announcing program of new constitutional monarchy; succeeded to the thrones of Austria, Hungary and other nations (2 Dec 1848) as a result of abdication of his uncle Ferdinand I; published manifesto promising constitutional rule on same day; requested military aid from Imperator Nikolaj I of Russia (26 Apr 1849) to suppress revolt in Hungary; moved to Vienna Hofburg (6 May 1849) to open court; Hungarian revolt put down by Russian Army (Arthur Görgey surrenders 13 Aug 1849); prorogued Reichstag by imperial decree (4 Mar 1849) and issued new constitution with a special manifesto on supreme imperial authority; established new military police force, Bundesgendarmerie (8 Jun 1849); issued imperial decree (20 Aug 1849) revoking majority of the constitution of 1848 and establishing Reichsrat to enforce imperial dictation (published in Wiener Zeitung 26 Aug 1849); signed Punctation of Olmütz (29 Nov 1850) with Prussia reviving the Deutscher Bund (German Confederation) with Austria as the head; issued act transferring direct control of military from the war ministry to the Emperor personally (31 Dec 1851); issued patent outlining new imperial government and reducing Hungary to a province in the Austrian Empire (1 Jan 1852); met Otto von Bismarck in Vienna in June 1852; survived assassination attempt by a Hungarian nationalist (13 Feb 1853); betrothal to Elisabeth Amalie Eugenie Prinzessin in Bayern announced in the Wiener Zeitung 18 Aug 1852; mediated between Russia, France, Great Britain, and Prussia at conference in Vienna, negotiations end when Russia invades Moldovia (3 Jul 1852); met with Imperator Nikolaj I at Olmütz (24 Sep 1852) to attempt mediation; Russia declared war on Turkey (1 Oct 1852); ordered mobilization of army to Galicia, Bukovina, and Transylvania (22 Oct 1852); made alliance with France and Great Britain; entered into defensive alliance with Prussia against Russia (20 Apr 1854); married Elisabeth of Bavaria (24 Apr 1854); issued order to Nikolaj I demanding evacuation of Russian troops from the Danubian principalities on Turkish side; added signature to conditional peace agreement from France and Great Britain to Russia 8 Aug 1854 (refused by Nikolaj I), Russian troops evacuated the Danube; peace concluded at Paris Congress (Mar 1856); went on tour of Italian provinces, including Venice and Milan (Nov-Jan 1857); ministerial council sent ultimatum to Piedmont 19 Apr 1859 demanding cease of military operations or be invaded (delivered to Turin 23 Apr 1859 and rejected by the government); France allied with Italian provinces and declared war on Austria (3 May 1859); went to Verona (29 May 1859) to assume command of army; Austrian army defeated at Battle of Solferino (24 Jun 1859); agreed to Armistice of Villafranca (8 Jul 1859), lost Lombardy; issued manifesto (15 Jul 1859) declaring peace with France; signed Treaty of Zurich (10 Nov 1859) to cement peace of Villafranca; issued imperial rescript 4 Mar 1860 to form "extraordinary council" to decide budget (first session 31 May 1860); agreed to cooperate with Hungarian Diet in reorganization of government estates (Oct 1860); issued revised Diploma constitution 26 Feb 1861 (rejected by Hungarian Diet, dissolved by Emperor); met with Wilhelm I. of Prussia in Gastein (2 Aug 1861); attended meeting of the Deutscher Bund (18 Aug 1863) to discuss situation in Schleswig-Holstein; opened secret negotiations with Francis Déak, leader of Hungarians (winter 1863); Austrian and Prussian troops invaded Schleswig (1 Feb 1864) to begin Second Schleswig-Holstein War; ordered new assessment of Hungarian government possibilities following publishing of demands by Déak that Hungary be granted independent government; signed agreement with Prussia on government of Schleswig-Holstein (24 Jun 1864); agreed to preliminary peace treaty with Denmark (1 Aug 1864); Denmark gave up control of Schleswig-Holstein and Lauenburg to Austria and Prussia; signed Treaty of Vienna (30 Oct 1864) with Prussia and Denmark (Austria gains Holstein and Prussia gains Schleswig); signed agreement at Convention of Gastein to decide final disposal of Schleswig-Holstein (15 Aug 1865); referred Schleswig-Holstein matters to the Bundesversammlung (Federal Assembly) 16 Mar 1866, contrary to Convention of Gastein, in response to Prussia's alliance with Italy; ceased diplomatic relations with Prussia (12 Jun 1866) and demanded mobilization of federal troops; defeated by Prussia at Königgratz (3 Jul 1866); preliminary peace agreed at Nikolsburg 26 Jul 1866 (concluded at Prague 23 Aug 1866), south German states gain independence, Silesia ceded to Prussia, Austria excluded from new Norddeutscher Bund (North German Federation); Treaty of Vienna concluded 12 Oct 1866 (ceded Venetia to France); signed Ausgleich (Austro-Hungarian Compromise) 15 Mar 1867, creating Austro-Hungarian Dual Monarchy; signed Treaty of London (11 May 1867) with France, Prussia, Belgium, Italy, Russia, Luxembourg, Great Britain, and the Netherlands (provided basis for future relations between European powers).
Biographical sources: "Emperor Francis Joseph Of Austria: A Biography", by Joseph Redlich (New York: Macmillan, 1929); Oesterreichisch-kaiserliche privilegirte Wiener Zeitung, Nr. 189, Donnerstag, den 19. August 1830 (notice on birth); Wiener Zeitung, Nr. 268, Mittwoch, den 22. November 1916 (obituary).

[1] Wiener Zeitung, Nr. 324, Sonntag, den 3. December 1848. Abend-Ausgabe.
[2] Allgemeines Reichs-Gesetz- und Regierungsblatt für das Kaisertum Österreich. Jahrgang 1849. Nr. 150. S. 152. § 11.
[3] Allgemeines Reichs-Gesetz- und Regierungsblatt für das Kaisertum Österreich. VI. Stück, ausgegeben und versendet am 5. December 1849. Nr. 25. S. 33.
[4] Reichs-Gesetz-Blatt für das Kaisertum Österreich. Jahrgang 1866. XLIX Stück, ausgegeben und versendet am 14. October 1866. Nr. 116. S. 345.
Last updated on: 26 Jun 2009 02:52:57