Afghanistan: Heads of State: 1881-1973

Ruling clan: Muḥammadzay (Bārakzay tribe) except for as noted below
The names of each ruler appear as follows: a) official name as normally found on the calligraphic seal or signature known as tughra, b) official honorific title(s) in italics.
Amīr [1][2]
2 Oct 1881 - 3 Oct 1901 ‘Abd al-Raḥmān Khān Ḍiyā’ al-Milla wa al-Dīn [3][4]
3 Oct 1901 - 20 Feb 1919 Ḥabīb Allāh Khān Sirāj al-Milla wa al-Dīn
21 Feb 1919 - 28 Feb 1919 Naṣr Allāh Khān
28 Feb 1919 - 9 Jun 1926 Amān Allāh Khān Sayf al-Milla wa al-Dīn, Ghāzī
Pādshāh-i Afghānistān
9 Jun 1926 - 14 Jan 1929 Amān Allāh Khān Sayf al-Milla wa al-Dīn, Ghāzī (x)
14 Jan 1929 - 17 Jan 1929 ‘Ināyat Allāh Shāh Mu‘in al-Salṭana
Amīr
17 Jan 1929 - 13 Oct 1929 Ḥabīb Allāh Khādim-i Dīn-i Rasūl Allāh, Ghāzī [5][6]
Pādshāh-i Afghānistān = De Afghānistān Pāchā
17 Oct 1929 - 8 Nov 1933 Muḥammad Nādir Shāh Ghāzī (posthumous: Shāh-i Shahīd)
8 Nov 1933 - 17 Jul 1973 Muḥammad Ẓāhir Shāh Payraw-i Dīn-i Matīn-i Islām, Banda-i Khudā, al-Mutawakkil ‘alā-Allāh

[1] In the official English-language version of documents, the style used after 1905 is Amir, Independent King of the State of Afghanistan and its Dependencies.
[2] The Constitution of 9 Apr 1923 (original text in Pashto) refers to the ruler as Pādshāh, but the style Amīr continues in official use.
[3] Amīr in Kabul from 22 Jul 1880.
[4] Dissident rulers (in Herat):
  ? Apr 1887 - ? Jun 1887 Tīmūr Shāh Khān Gilzay
  14 Aug 1887 - ? Sep 1887 Muḥammad Ayyūb Khān
  Dissident ruler (in Balkh):
  1 Aug 1887 - 29 Sep 1887 Muḥammad Isḥāq Khān
[5] A member of the Kalakānī clan (referred to by Pashtun sources as Bāchā-i Saqqā’).
[6] Amīr (in dissidence)
  17 Jan 1929 - 9 Feb 1929 ‘Alī Aḥmad Khān Jān
  Pādshāh-i Afghānistān (in dissidence)
  21 Jan 1929 - 23 May 1929 Amān Allāh Shāh Sayf al-Milla wa al-Dīn, Ghāzī (x)
  Amīr (in dissidence)
  23 May 1929 - 31 May 1929 ‘Alī Aḥmad Khān Jān (x)
Last updated on: 28 Oct 2010 09:07:40